Daily Times: Mehboob Qadir.
The Umayyid genius for a reasonably decentralised rule unshackled the Islamic state system and Muslim society, opening them to evolution, expansion and absorption of ideas from neighbouring civilizations. Thus began the enrichment and rise of Islamic civilisation. Arts and crafts, architecture, music, sciences, medicine, literature, industry, state institutions, the art of warfare and state building progressed admirably. Islam spread from Turkey to Sinkiang overland and along the rim of the Indian Ocean to India, Malaysia and Indonesia, this time propelled by the winds of trade.
The peak of the Islamic state and paradoxically its epilogue too, was the Ottoman Caliphate.