Why is he equal to Plato, Aristotle, Euclid, and Archimedes? I do not say it but George Sarton says it! George Sarton (1884–1956) was a Belgian chemist and historian who is considered the founder of the discipline of history of science.^{[1]} He left Belgium because of the First World War and settled in the United States where he spent the rest of his life researching and writing about the history of science.
Dr. Abdus Salam, Nobel Laureate in physics wrote summarized Sarton’s history pertaining to the Muslim scientists in an article, Islam and Science – Concordance or Conflict? Salam highlighted George Sarton’s evaluation of history in this article and it was published in Review of Religions in March 1995:
Barely a hundred years after the Holy Prophet’s death the Muslims had made it their task to master the thenknown sciences. Systematically, they translated the entire corpus of the then known knowledge in their religious language, Arabic. Founding institutes of advanced study (BaitulHikmas), they acquired an ascendancy in the sciences that lasted for the next 350 years. A semiquantitative measure of this is given by George Sarton in his monumental History of Science. Sarton divides his story of the highest achievement in science into Ages, each Age lasting 50 years. With each, he associates one central figure: thus, 500450 BC is the Age of Plato, followed by the Ages of Aristotle, Euclid, Archimedes and so on. From 750 to 1100 CE, however, it is an unbroken succession of the Ages of Jabir, Khwarizmi, Razi, Masudi, Abu’IWafa, Biruni and Omar Khayam. In those 350 years, Arabs, Turks, Afghans and Persians chemists, algebraists, clinicians, geographers, mathematicians, physicists and astronomers of the commonwealth of Islamheld the world stage of sciences. Only after 1100 CE, in Sarton’s scheme, do the first Western names begin to appear; however, for another 250 years, they share the honors with men of Islam like Ibn Rushd, Nasiruddin Tusi and Ibn Nafis.[1]
Whereas, Plato, Aristotle, Euclid, and Archimedes are well known and common household names the name of AbūʾlWafā Būzjānī is hardly known. If George Sarton’s evaluation be true and I believe it is, then what a tragedy and injustice was perpetrated under the oppression of the Catholic Church and later the British Empire that humanity came to forget the names of its great heroes. What an epiphany!
References
1. http://www.alislam.org/library/articles/IslamandScienceConcordanceorConflict.pdf
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
“Abul Wáfa” redirects here. For the lunar crater, see Abul Wáfa (crater).
Full name  Abu alWafa’ alBuzjani 

Born  (9400610)June 10, 940 Buzhgan 
Died  997 or 998 CE Baghdad 
Era  Islamic Golden Age 
Region  Baghdad 
Main interests  Mathematics and Astronomy 
Notable ideas  
Major works  Almagest of Abū alWafā’ 
Abū alWafāʾ, Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad ibn Yaḥyā ibn Ismāʿīl ibn alʿAbbās alBūzjānī (Persian: ابوالوفای بوزجانی) ^{[1]} (10 June 940 – 15 July 998) was a Persian^{[2]} mathematician and astronomer who worked in Baghdad. He made important innovations in spherical trigonometry, and his work on arithmetics for businessmen contains the first instance of using negative numbers in a medieval Islamic text.
He is also credited with compiling the tables of sines and tangents at 15′ intervals. He also introduced the sec and cosec functions, as well studied the interrelations between the six trigonometric lines associated with an arc.^{[3]} His Almagest was widely read by medieval Arabic astronomers in the centuries after his death. He is known to have written several other books that have not survived.
Contents[hide] 
Life
He was born in Buzhgan, (now Torbate Jam) in Khorasan (in today’s Iran). At age 19, in 959 AD, he moved to Baghdad and remained there for the next forty years, and died there in 998.^{[3]} He was a contemporary of the distinguished scientists AlQuhi and AlSijzi who were in Baghdad at the time and others like Abu Nasr ibn Iraq, AbuMahmud Khojandi, Kushyar ibn Labban and AlBiruni.^{[4]} In Baghdad, he received patronage by members of the Buyid court.^{[5]}
Astronomy
Abu AlWafa’ was the first to build a wall quadrant to observe the sky.^{[4]} It has been suggested that he was influenced by the works of AlBattani as the latter describes a quadrant instrument in his Kitāb azZīj.^{[4]} His use of tangent helped to solve problems involving rightangled spherical triangles, and developed a new technique to calculate sine tables, allowing him to construct more accurate tables than his predecessors.^{[5]}
In 997, he participated in an experiment to determine the difference in local time between his location and that of alBiruni (who was living in Kath, now a part of Uzbekistan). The result was very close to presentday calculations, showing a difference of approximately 1 hour between the two longitudes. Abu alWafa is also known to have worked with alKuhi, who was a famous maker of astronomical instruments.^{[5]} While what is extant from his works lacks theoretical innovation, his observational data were using by many later astronomers, including alBiruni’s.^{[5]}
3rd Lunar inequality
The 3rd Lunar inequality (the variation) was first discovered by Abū alWafā’ Būzjānī,^{[6]} although Tycho Brahe often quoted alWafa’s work we today say that he independently rediscovered the phenomenon.
Almagest
Among his works on astronomy, only the first seven treatises of his Almagest (Kitāb alMajisṭī) are now extant.^{[7]} The work covers numerous topics in the fields of plane and spherical trigonometry, planetary theory, and solutions to determine the direction of Qibla.^{[4]}^{[5]}
Mathematics
He established several trigonometric identities such as sin(a ± b) in their modern form, where the Ancient Greek mathematicians had expressed the equivalent identities in terms of chords.^{[8]}
He also discovered the law of sines for spherical triangles:
where A, B, C are the sides and a, b, c are the opposing angles.^{[8]}
Some sources suggest that he introduced the tangent function, although other sources give the credit for this innovation to alMarwazi.^{[8]}
Works
 Almagest (Kitāb alMajisṭī).
 A book of zij called Zīj al‐wāḍiḥ, no longer extant.^{[5]}
 “A Book on Those Geometric Constructions Which Are Necessary for a Craftsman”, (Kitāb fī mā yaḥtaj ilayh alṣāniʿ min alaʿmāl alhandasiyya).^{[9]}
 “A Book on What Is Necessary from the Science of Arithmetic for Scribes and Businessmen”, (Kitāb fī mā yaḥtaj ilayh alkuttāb wa’lʿummāl min ʾilm alḥisāb).^{[9]} This is the first book where negative numbers have been used in the medieval Islamic texts.^{[5]}
He also wrote translations and commentaries on the algebraic works of Diophantus, alKhwārizmī, and Euclid‘s Elements.^{[5]}
Legacy
The crater Abul Wáfa on the Moon is named after him.
Notes
 ^ “بوزجانی”. Encyclopaediaislamica.com. http://www.encyclopaediaislamica.com/madkhal2.php?sid=2053. Retrieved 20090830.
 ^ “Iran” in USECO History of Humanity, ed. by M.A. Bakhit, Volume 4 of History of humanity : scientific and cultural development,UNESCO, 2000 pg 375: “”The science of trigonometry as known today was established by Islamic mathematicians. One of the most important of these was the Persian Abu’l Wafa Buzjani (d. 997 or 998), who wrote a work called the Almagest dealing mostly with trigonometry”” [1]
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} O’Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., “Mohammad Abu’lWafa AlBuzjani”, MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews, http://wwwhistory.mcs.standrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Abu’lWafa.html .
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} ^{c} ^{d} Moussa, Ali (2011). “Mathematical Methods in Abū alWafāʾ’s Almagest and the Qibla Determinations”. Arabic Sciences and Philosophy (Cambridge University Press) 21 (1). doi:10.1017/S095742391000007X.
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} ^{c} ^{d} ^{e} ^{f} ^{g} ^{h} Hashemipour 2007.
 ^ Cajori, Florian, A History of Mathematics Macmillan, 1922 p105
 ^ Kennedy, E. S. (1956). Survey of Islamic Astronomical Tables. American Philosophical Society. p. 12.
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} ^{c} Jacques Sesiano, “Islamic mathematics”, p. 157, in Selin, Helaine; D’Ambrosio, Ubiratan, eds. (2000), Mathematics Across Cultures: The History of Nonwestern Mathematics, Springer, ISBN 1402002602
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} Youschkevitch 1970.
References
 O’Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., “Mohammad Abu’lWafa AlBuzjani”, MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews, http://wwwhistory.mcs.standrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Abu’lWafa.html .
 Hashemipour, Behnaz (2007). “Būzjānī: Abū al‐Wafāʾ Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad ibn Yaḥyā al‐Būzjānī”. In Thomas Hockey et al. The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers. New York: Springer. pp. 188–9. ISBN 9780387310220. http://islamsci.mcgill.ca/RASI/BEA/Buzjani_BEA.htm. (PDF version)
 Youschkevitch, A.P. (1970). “Abū’lWafāʾ AlBūzjānī, Muḥammad Ibn Muḥammad Ibn Yaḥyā Ibn Ismāʿīl Ibn AlʿAbbās”. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 1. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. pp. 39–43. ISBN 0684101149. http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G22830900031.html.
External links

Categories: Asia, Uncategorized
Abul Wafa was a great Muslim scientist and I feel it’s important that we promote the great achievements that these individuals made to human progression.
The below is a short video about him which I think also highlights his accomplishments: