Here’s why Islam is practiced so differently from country to country

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Source: Business Insider

No religion is unified. How Catholicism, for example, is practiced in rural Italy differs from the way this is done, say, in New York city. Language, culture, tradition, the political and social contexts, and even food is different in these two places.

Such geographic differences are certainly important in Islam. But also important are the numerous legal schools and their interpretations. Since Islam is a religion predicated on law (sharia), variations in the interpretation of that law have contributed to regional differences.

Also significant in the modern world is the existence of other religions. Malaysia, for example, has a relatively large percentage of religious minorities (up to 40% of the population). Saudi Arabia has virtually none.

This means Malaysia has had to develop a constitution that protects the rights of religious minorities, whereas Saudi Arabia has not. And it’s why Islam is so different in these two countries.

Schools of thought

There are historical reasons for this variation. Despite popular opinion, Islam didn’t appear fully formed at the time of Muhammad (570-632). There were huge debates over the nature of religious and political authority, for instance, and who was or was not a Muslim.

It’s similarly misguided to assume that a unified teaching simply spread throughout the Mediterranean region and beyond.

How Muhammad’s message developed into the religion of Islam — complete with legal and doctrinal content — took centuries to develop and cannot concern us here.

What is important to note, however, is that his message spread into various (unbordered) regions. Modern nation states would only arise much later. And each of these areas was already in possession of its own set of religious, legal and cultural traditions.

A Muslim pilgrim prays on Mount Mercy on the plains of Arafat during the annual haj pilgrimage, outside the holy city of Mecca September 23, 2015.  REUTERS/Ahmad MasoodThomson ReutersA Muslim pilgrim prays on Mount Mercy on the plains of Arafat during the annual haj pilgrimage, outside the holy city of Mecca

The result was that Islam had to be articulated in the light of local customs and understandings. This was done, in part, through the creation of legal courts, a class of jurists (ulema; mullas in Shi`ism), a legal code (sharia) and a system of interpretation of that code based on rulings (fatwas).

Many local customs arose based on trying to understand Muhammad’s message. And these customs and understandings gave rise to distinct legal schools.

Although there were originally many such schools, they gradually reduced to four in Sunni Islam – Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi`i and Hanbali. While these four schools all regard one another as orthodox, they nevertheless have distinct interpretations of Islamic law. Some of their interpretations are more conservative than others.

muslim branchesThe Conversation

There are also a number of such schools in Shi`i Islam, as you can see from the image above.

The four Sunni schools are associated with distinct regions (as are the Shi`i schools). The Maliki school, for example, is prominent today in Egypt and North Africa. The Hanafi is in western Asia, the Shafi`i in Southeast Asia and the Hanbali (the most conservative) is found primarily in Saudi Arabia and the Persian Gulf states.

Fundamental differences

All this legal and local variation has produced different interpretations of the religion. But despite such regional and legal diversity, many Muslims and non-Muslims insist on referring to Islam and sharia as if they were stable entities.

An example might be illustrative of the extent of the differences within Islam. Many non-Muslims are often surprised to learn of the cult of saints, namely the role Sufi saints (Sufism is Islamic mysticism) have played and continue to play in the daily life of Muslims.

A Sufi saint is someone who is considered holy and who has achieved nearness to God. Praying to these saints and making pilgrimages to their shrines is a way to, among other things, ask for intercession.

islam mapThe Conversation

Although these practices are not unlike the role and place of saints in Catholicism, in Islam they are much more localized. And this locally varied cult of saints played and continues to play an important role in Islamic religious life from Morocco in the West to Pakistan in the East.

Devotion to the saints is believed to cure the sick, make fertile the barren, bring rain, and so on. Needless to say, such devotion is often frowned upon by more fundamentalist interpretations.

While most legal schools are content – albeit somewhat bothered – by such practices, the conservative Hanbali school forbids cults like this. Its adherents have, among other things, destroyed tombs of saints in both the premodern and modern eras. They have also been responsible for the destruction of shrines associated with Muhammad’s family, such as the shrines and tombs of Muhammad’s wife.

The Hanbali school, backed by the wealth of the Saudi ruling family, has also tried to make inroads into other areas. Those associated with this legal school, for example, have built madrasas (religious seminaries) in regions traditionally influenced by other legal schools of thought.

Iran prayer Eid al-FitrAP/Ebrahim NorooziIn this Saturday, July 18, 2015 file photo, Iranian women pray during the Eid al-Fitr prayer in Tehran, Iran. Eid al-Fitr marks the end of the holy month of Ramadan, during which Muslims all over the world fast from sunrise to sunset.

Most fundamentalist movements in Islam, including Islamic State, have emanated from such ultra-conservative elements. The Taliban in Afghanistan and Pakistan, for instance, are influenced by the more conservative elements of Hanbali ideology, even though they exist in a predominantly Hanafi legal environment.

The goal of many of these groups, sometimes referred to as Wahhabis or Salafis, is to return to what they imagine to be the pure or pristine version of Islam as practiced by Muhammad and his earliest followers. They often have strict interpretations of Islam, strict dress codes and separation of the sexes.

Today, there are more than one and a half billion Muslims worldwide, making Islam the second-largest religion on the planet after Christianity. But it is a rich and variegated religion. And this variation must be taken into account when dealing with it.

Most importantly, the variation cannot be papered over with simplistic slogans or stereotypes. That women are not allowed to drive in Saudi Arabia but are in places like Malaysia tells you something about this variation.

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2 replies

  1. FROM MY PERSPECTIVE;

    WHAT IS WRONG WITH ISLAMIC TEACHING & MUSLIM’S SCHOLARS TODAY?

    THE FIRST MISTAKE;
    There are many sects in Islam today.
    Each of sect has a imam or spiritual leader.(imam).
    Each Imam has millions followers

    His followers believe in him or his Imam blindly.
    What ever Imam says, they follow it without skeptical at all.

    Allah and prophet has warned His people to be careful with your leaders, non man on earth always do rightly.

    Do not follow idols.
    ٱتَّبِعُواْ مَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيۡكُم مِّن رَّبِّكُمۡ وَلَا تَتَّبِعُواْ مِن دُونِهِۦۤ أَوۡلِيَآءَ‌ۗ قَلِيلاً۬ مَّا تَذَكَّرُونَ (٣)
    وَكَم مِّن قَرۡيَةٍ أَهۡلَكۡنَـٰهَا فَجَآءَهَا بَأۡسُنَا بَيَـٰتًا أَوۡ هُمۡ قَآٮِٕلُونَ (٤)
    O humankind, follow what has been sent down to you from your Lord, and do not follow any Scholar (idols) other than His laws. Little you heed to advice! (3) How many a town We have destroyed! Our punishment came upon them at night or when they were having a nap at midday.QS 7:3-4.

    ٱتَّخَذُوٓاْ أَحۡبَارَهُمۡ وَرُهۡبَـٰنَهُمۡ أَرۡبَابً۬ا مِّن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ
    They have taken their priests and their scholars ( like Abu Bakr al-Baghdad, Al Qardawi, Al Zawari, Osma Bin Laden, Muslim & Bukhari, Hurairrah, Hambali, Hanafi, Maliki, Safie etc ) for their Lords ( idols) besides God’s laws. QS.9:31.

    Those who follow scholars (idols) blindly, he will fall into sinful Syrik and go astray.
    Allah will bring disaster, misery, sorrow on him, his friends and followers as we see in Muslim countries today. From Nigeria–Libya, Somalia, Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan–Pakistan etc.

    THE SECOND MISTAKE.
    Islam is religion of; peace, mercy for all, love, mercy, forgiveness, tolerance, freedom of religion, speech, expression, justice for all people regardless his belief, race, gender and ages, prosperity and Modernity.

    Those who practice the truth of Islamic teaching correctly will result / produce a good Muslim, peaceful Muslim, lovely Muslim, respectful Muslim, generous Muslim, tolerant Muslim, and live in wealth and happiness.

    WHAT IS WRONG WITH ISLAMIC TEACHING & MUSLIMS SCHOLARS TODAY?
    BUT what we see today is opposite, Muslim hate each other, judge each other, punish each other than destroy one another as we see in Arab countries, where Islam and Prophet was born, the fruit of decades of hate teaching has been coming to the fruition, millions innocent people including children have been suffering, displacing and killed,
    Nauzubillah– I am very sad, pity, heartbreaking, embarrassing. What is about you?

    There is some thing wrong with Muslim Scholars or Islamic teaching.What do you think?

    WHEREAS–The Prophet Mohammad (PBUH), said:

    “None of you has faith until you love for your neighbor what you love for yourself.”

    These Golden Rules are found in Christianity, Judaism, and other religions.

    “Love your neighbor as yourself. If you keep on biting and devouring each other, watch out or you will be destroyed by each other.”
    “If you love God, but you still hate others, you are a big liar”

    Love is the seed of peace, happiness, and prosperity but hatred is the seed of the darkness, violence, poverty and then destroy one another completely as we see in Arab’s countries.

    These are the messages we must give the next generation.(our children and grandchildren) at home and schools.

    Oh God, please guide all Muslim political and spiritual leaders to the right path of Islam. Ameen
    Was Salam–All love

    READ MORE
    https://docs.google.com/document/d/1CHntEWeff2iGbrQ7YpCnCb18BjkFmbDyXrcqryOxzpE/edit?usp=sharing

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