The Last Sermon of the Prophet Muhammad: The Beginning of Universal Brotherhood

Epigraph: O mankind, We have created you from a male and a female; and We have made you into tribes and sub-tribes that you may recognize one another. Verily, the most honourable among you, in the sight of Allah, is he who is the most righteous among you. Surely, Allah is All-knowing, All-Aware.  (Al Quran 49:14)

Pilgrims on Mount Arafat

Source: Arab News

Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) delivered his last sermon (Khutbah) on the ninth of Dhul Hijjah (12th and last month of the Islamic year), 10 years after Hijrah (migration from Makkah to Madinah) in the Uranah Valley of mount Arafat. His words were quite clear and concise and were directed to the entire humanity.

After praising, and thanking Allah he said:

O People, lend me an attentive ear, for I know not whether after this year, I shall ever be amongst you again. Therefore listen to what I am saying to you very carefully and take these words to those who could not be present here today.

O people, just as you regard this month, this day, this city as Sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you. Remember that you will indeed meet your Lord, and that He will indeed reckon your deeds. Allah has forbidden you to take usury (interest), therefore all interest obligation shall henceforth be waived. Your capital, however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer any inequity. Allah has Judged that there shall be no interest and that all the interest due to Abbas ibn Abd Al-Muttalib (Prophet’s uncle) shall henceforth be waived…

Beware of Satan, for the safety of your religion. He has lost all hope that he will ever be able to lead you astray in big things, so beware of following him in small things.

O people, it is true that you have certain rights with regard to your women, but they also have rights over you. Remember that you have taken them as your wives only under Allah’s trust and with His permission. If they abide by your right then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Do treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers. And it is your right that they do not make friends with any one of whom you do not approve, as well as never to be unchaste.

O people, listen to me in earnest, worship Allah, say your five daily prayers (Salah), fast during the month of Ramadan, and give your wealth in Zakat. Perform Hajj if you can afford to.

All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over black nor a black has any superiority over white except bypiety (taqwa) and good action. Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim which belongs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly. Do not, therefore, do injustice to yourselves.

Remember, one day you will appear before Allah and answer your deeds. So beware, do not stray from the path of righteousness after I am gone.

O people, no prophet or apostle will come after me and no new faith will be born.

Reason well, therefore, O people, and understand words which I convey to you. I leave behind me two things, the Qu’ran and my example, the Sunnah and if you follow these you will never go astray.

All those who listen to me shall pass on my words to others and those to others again; and may the last ones understand my words better than those who listen to me directly. Be my witness, O Allah, that I have conveyed your message to your people.

(Reference: See Al-Bukhari, Hadith 1623, 1626, 6361) Sahih of Imam Muslim also refers to this sermon in Hadith number 98. Imam al-Tirmidhi has mentioned this sermon in Hadith nos. 1628, 2046, 2085. Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal has given us the longest and perhaps the most complete version of this sermon in his Masnud, Hadith no. 19774.)


Categories: Arab World, Asia, ISLAM, Saudi Arabia

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22 replies

  1. the article contains authentic ahadith about the last sermon by the holy prophet muhammad (saw) such as:

    “All mankind is from Adam and Eve…” thus proving the adamic creation.


    “O people, no prophet or apostle will come after me and no new faith will be born.”

    quran ch 33 vs40 also states that muhammad is the last appoited prophet.

  2. the hadith clearly means that no new prophet will come thus there is no new appointed prophet after Muhammad (saw). That is obvious reconcilation between all the relevant ayat and ahadith.

  3. Parvez, unfortunately your reconciliation is creating a very awkward and unseemly position of bringing back a more than 2000 years old man, for no good reason.

    Allah has sent 124,000 prophets and never before brought a 2000 year old. Never before He changed one man into another man. Never before or since He took anyone to paradise or heaven, while living. Never before He sent a prophet of one religion into another. The Quran says that the prophets speak the language of their people. Now you are proposing that Jesus, may peace be on him, would come back, when his language is almost extinct.

    The Ahmadiyya reconciliation is far better and in keeping with Allah’s attributes and His previous Sunnah. We argue from the Quran that Jesus, may peace be on him is deceased. The finality of prophethood means that there is no new Law bringing prophet and that the second coming of Jesus, is metaphorical.

    Just imagine this as one possible reconciliation and sleep over it for a few days and weeks and pray to Allah for enlightenment and guidance.

    May Allah help us think straight and guide us to the Truth.

  4. not sure where you got the ‘change in one man into another man’??

    regarding the physical ascension; Allah raised prophet Muhammad (saw) upto the heavens alive also during the mi’raj to get the commandment of 5 salah per day.

    also prophet Muhammad (saw) reminded us that isa ibn maryam will return, thus there is no room for metaphoric interpretation regarding the messiah’s ascension and return.

    and also not forget that nobody has yet fulfilled the prophetic signs regarding the messiah thus proving that isa ibn maryam has not returned yet.

    the ahmadism thought can’t reconcile their contradictions to the ahadith that states that Isa ibn maryam will descend from heaven.

  5. Parvez, who was put on the cross, in your story, instead of Jesus answers your first query.

    See, if you will insist on your concrete thinking, you will be answerable to God Almighty, for not accepting a prophet, who has come for renaissance of Islam and you will miss all the bounties associated with following the Truth.

    There must have been reasons, why the Jews missed the first Messiah and then also missed the Holy Prophet, may peace be on him. May be they also had concrete thinking when it came to accepting the truth of Jesus, may peace be on him.

    At some point I will need to close this discussion, but, I will indulge you for a little while.

    What the prophecies say about Jesus has to be taken metaphorically. Literal translation will also imply that Jesus, when he comes will need to slaughter millions of pigs and break billions of crosses. He will have very little time left for his prophethood.

  6. I would like to highlight the following points. According to Parvez Jesus a.s will come again for reforming Islam. He should know that Allah the Almighty has taken all necessary steps and measures to protect and reform Islam. Let us analyses the followings:
    “Verily God will appoint for this Ummah in the beginning of every century, one who will restore for it its faith.”
    (Abu Dawood, Kitabul Fitan)

    2. “I give you the glad tidings of Mahdi who will be raised in my Ummah at a time of digression and distress of people. He will fill the earth with equity and justice as it is filled with oppression and violence.”
    (Musnad Ahmad Bin Hanbal, Vol. 3, p. 37)

    3. “When one thousand and two hundred and forty years will pass, God will raise Mahdi.”
    (An-Najmus Saqih, Vol. 2, p. 209)

    4. Nawab Nurul Hasan, the son of Nawab Siddiq Hasan Khan, in his book Iqtarabus Sa’at, written in the beginning of the 14th century, stated on page 221:

    “In accordance with this calculation the Mahdi should have appeared in the 13th century, but the century elapsed and the Mahdi has not come. Now we are almost in the 14th century and even six months have passed of it since this book was written. Probably God will favor us with His Grace, Equity, Mercy and Generosity; and the Mahdi may appear within four to six years.”

    5. The late Khawaja Hasan Nizami, after his tour of the Islamic countries wrote:

    “All the divines and saintly people with whom I met during my tour of the Islamic countries, I found them anxiously waiting for the Imam Mahdi. A Khalifa of Sheikh Sanosi went up to the extent of saying that the Imam Mahdi shall appear in this very year–1331 A.H.” (Ahl-Hadith, January 26, 1912)

    Ummat-e-Muslema has been promised that God will appoint for it in the beginning of every century, one who will restore its faith for it. Consequently, this promise had been fulfilled in the past 13 centuries with the advent of Mujaddideen -regenerators, who were distinguished exemplars of Islam, and played a very important part in spreading and establishing Islam:

    1st century Umar Bin Abdul Aziz
    2nd century Imam Shafi’i; Imam Ahmad Bin Hanbal
    3rd century Abu Sharh & Abul Hasan al-Ash’ari
    4th century Abu Ubaidullah of Neshapur & Qazi Abu Bakr Baqilani
    5th century Imam Al-Ghazali
    6th century Al-Sayyid Abdul Qadir Jeelani
    7th century Imam Ibn Taimiyyah & Khwaja Mueen-ud Din Chishti
    8th century Ibn Hajar Asqalani & Saleh Bin Umar
    9th century Imam Suyuti
    10th century Muhammad Tahir Gujrati
    11th century Al-Sheikh Ahmad of Sirhand, Mujaddid Alf Thani
    12th century Shah Wali Allah Muhaddath Dehlavi
    13th century Syed Ahmad Barelvi

    Keeping the traditions of the Holy Prophet, peace be upon him, and the statements of the Muslim divines in view, each and every sane Muslim is requested to think twice that the 14th century closed on November 7, 1980, with the appearance of the Hilal of Muharram, the first lunar month of the Muslim era, and the 15th century has ushered in on November 8, 1980; but:

    A. Where is the Mujaddid of the 14th century and who is he?
    B. Where is the Imam Mahdi and Messiah and who is he?
    C. What happened to the promises made and the prophecies foretold?
    D. Are the Muslims, implying that the prophecies of The Holy Prophet is not going to be fulfilled (Naouzobillah…)because they has adopted a christian belief that Jesus is alive in heaven?

    It is high time for the muslims to study the Qur’an thoroughly and the hadith to come to understand the exact meaning of all those sayings.
    May Allah Guide them.


  7. Sorry!! I’am unable to send this Artical to friends,it does not show the mail box.
    please suggest !! Thanks

  8. May I inform all friends and parvez sahib that I tried to open the links to consult tafseer ma’araf al Quran of late Mufti Azam Muhammad Shafi sahib. The link opened but it remained there and i could see only one page of each link. It did not show the complete subject, even did not discuss the subject in hand….

    Parvez sahib, please check and inform if I am wrong.

  9. @bakarkhan

    u asked about the promises regarding the signs of Imam mahdi. then tell what signs do u believe? because the signs promised in the hadith literature has not happened

  10. for more proofs regarding the ascension of isa ibn maryam (as) see;

    Another important proof of this event is the Arabic word bal, which appears in Qur’an, 4:158, and has the literal translation of “on the contrary.” The features of its meaning and use in Arabic linguistics indicate a very important fact: According to the rules of Arabic linguistics, the sentence that comes after it must have a meaning that is completely opposite to the preceding statement. That being the case, it is likely that the verses referring to Jesus (pbuh) “… They did not kill him,” (Qur’an, 4:157) “on the contrary [bal] God raised him up to Himself…” (Qur’an, 4:158) refer to the state of being alive, rather than the state of being dead. (God knows best.) Sheikh al-Islam Mustafa Sabri offered the following interpretation:

    If the term bal, which appears in Qur’an 4:158 and which I have translated as “on the contrary,” comes after a sentence expressing a negativity, then, according to the rules of Arabic linguistics, the sentence following it must mean the exact opposite of the one preceding it. The opposite of death is life. This is a requirement of the rules of linguistics. If we say that “the ascension here is a spiritual one” and “Jesus (pbuh) died in the normal sense,” then we are violating that rule. In that case, the ascension following the expression “on the contrary” would not represent the opposite to the verbs of “killing” and “crucifying” in the negative sentence preceding it. That is because it may be possible for a person to be killed and for his or her soul to rise to the skies. Otherwise, this term would be meaningless, and there are no meaningless terms in the Qur’an … According to those who support the thesis that the ascension is only one of the soul, the meaning of the verse is this: “They did not kill him and did not crucify him … on the contrary, God raised his station.” There is no particular oratory here, let alone succinctness … No rational person could take the words “The elevator in my building raises me to the fourth floor every day,” to mean that I am only raised to the fourth floor in spirit. Therefore, neither was Jesus (pbuh) raised only in spirit.

    The mutual compatibility between the verse’s previous and later sections necessarily reveals a fact. For example, if an Arab says: “I am not hungry; on the contrary, I am lying on my side,” this is not a correct sentence. In the same way, there is a discrepancy between the components in the sentence: “Khalid did not die; on the contrary, he is a good man.” What would be correct is to say: “Khalid did not die; on the contrary, he is alive.”

    also see

  11. Verses 4:158-159 of Soorah AL-NISA’, Translated by Maulawi Sher Ali:

    [4:158] And their saying, ‘We did kill the Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary, the Messenger of Allah;’ whereas they slew him not, nor crucified‡ him, but he was made to appear to them like one crucified; and those who differ therein are certainly in a state of doubt about it; they have no definite knowledge thereof, but only follow a conjecture; and they did not convert this conjecture into a certainty;
    [4:159] On the contrary, Allah exalted him to Himself. And Allah is Mighty, Wise.

    ‡ i.e. killed him by crucifixion.

    Notes from Hadhrat Mirza Tahir Ahmad (رحمه الله تعالى):
    * 158. Note: The emphasis is upon their failure to murder Jesus by any means. The reader is reminded that the very beginning of the verse refers to the Jewish boast that they had succeeded in murdering Jesus.
    This Jewish claim is firmly rejected by the Holy Qur’an. That is why by the end of the verse, the conclusive declaration is that whatever may have happened they certainly failed to kill him. This implies that it is not the act of crucifixion which is denied. What is denied is death by crucifixion.
    “Walakin shubbiha lahum” (وَلكِنْ شُبِّهَ لَهُمْ): the word ‘shubbiha’ (شُبِّهَ) in the text must be carefully studied. The context would not permit the implied reference to any other than Jesus or alternatively it could refer to the incident in general. In conformity with the rules of grammar the implied pronoun in the word ‘shubbiha’ (شُبِّهَ) can refer to none other than Jesus Christ himself. This means that it was he who was obscured and made to appear to them similar to someone else. Hence as Jesus was hung upon the cross he hung in the likeness of someone else. Evidently the denial is not that of crucifixion or apparent death thereupon but the denial is death by crucifixion. There certainly was great confusion as to what actually had happened. So the verse continues to build the scenario of the confusion and doubt. All else is nothing but conjecture. That is the final conclusion.
    If the word ‘shubbiha’ refers to the incident as such, this would point to the divergent claims of the two disputing parties as to what had happened. Neither of the parties were certain of the validity of their claims. For instance the Christian belief of Jesus’ death by crucifixion and later resurrection was not based on any tangible grounds but was merely conjectural. Likewise the Jewish claim of Jesus’ death upon the cross was no less conjectural. Hence their appeal to Pilate for the possession of Jesus’ body. In fact they clearly expressed their doubts regarding the entire episode of his so-called death and warned Pilate that in the likelihood of his survival he might reappear in public claiming that he had risen from the dead. (Matthew 27:63-64)
    It is to this that the last part of the verse under study refers, when it says ‘wa innalladhina’ (وَ اِنَّ الَّذِيْنَ). Certainly those who differ about it (or about him as to what actually befell him) were themselves in doubt.

    * 159. Note: ‘Bal rafa’ahullalu ilaihi’ (بَلْ رَّفَعَهُ اللهُ اِلَيْهِ): the majority of orthodox Muslims infer from this part of the verse that the connotation of ‘Bal’ refers to the act of crucifixion i.e., instead of letting him die upon the cross, God rescued him by raising him bodily to somewhere in the heavens. As such he should be living somewhere in space in the same corporal form that he possessed prior to the attempt of his crucifixion. This interpretation raises many difficult questions, mainly:
    (a) If Jesus was not crucified at all, is the entire history of crucifixion emphatically denied and the whole episode just a fiction or delusion suffered by the Jews, the Christians and the Romans alike?
    (b) Where in the verse is the claim that Jesus was raised bodily to heavens? All that is mentioned simply is that Allah exalted him to Himself.
    As to the first question the orthodox build a fantastic scenario according to which the fact of crucifixion itself is not denied but it is claimed that the person who crucified was not Jesus but someone else who was given the likeness of Jesus by some angels at the command of God. Hence the doubts and conjectures were about the identity of the person who was crucified. Evidently this explanation creates only more problems than it solves. Moreover, the entire tale is absolutely without foundation. No scriptural evidence or evidence based on the traditions of the Holy Prophet (may peace and blessings of Allah be on him) is ever presented to support this bizarre claim which adds more conjectural confusion.
    It is as if this explanation of the verse dawned only upon the medieval scholars while the Messenger of God, peace be upon him, remained himself completely unaware of it.
    As to the second question the weakness of the claim is apparent from the wording of the Holy Qura’an. The word ‘rafa’a’ (رَفَعَ) means elevated. Whenever Allah elevates a person the elevation always refers to the status of the person, never to his body. In fact it is impossible to translate this verse in any way other than the said meaning i.e., the elevation of spiritual station.
    The verse declares that Allah elevated Jesus to Himself. Evidently no point in space of Heaven is mentioned to which Allah raised him. He raised to Himself while He was present there where Jesus was. No place in Heaven or earth is empty of Allah’s presence. So when someone is said to be raised to Him, a bodily movement is impossible and inconceivable. According to Ahmadiyya understanding of this verse, the connotation of ‘on the contrary’ refers to the Jewish claim of the accursed death of Jesus. Obviously the opposite curse is nearness to God.
    [Any errors or omissions are mine – ikhan]

  12. No new Law-Bearing Prophet will come after the Holy Prophet ( peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). The Holy Prophet ( peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) foretold the coming of the Promised Messiah (as) who has come.
    “The advent of The Holy Prophet sa is described metaphorically as the appearance of God Almighty. The Holy Prophet sa became the mirror reflecting Divine Attributes. He was Al- Abd. The Holy Quran calls him Abdullah (72:20) — The Servant of Allah. For the latter days God in His Mercy sent us the servant of The Servant — Ghulam Ahmad as. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiani as (Ahmad as) claimed to be The Promised Messiah and Mahdi. Ahmad as claimed to be the metaphorical second coming of Jesus as of Nazareth and the divine guide, whose advent was foretold by the Prophet of Islam, Muhammad sa.” ( source www. alislam. org)

  13. Parvez is uselessly trying to keep Jesus alive, by the use of the word “bal”. By the use of “bal” Allah has denied two or three things of the Jews and the Christians at once.
    1. Their claim that they Killed Jesus.
    2. Their claim that they killed him on cross i.e. crucified.
    3. Making Jesus a cursed person by dying on the cross and being a false prophet.
    Please keep all three things in mind and then consider the use of the word “bal”.
    It clearly proves that Jesus was not killed on the cross. He was put on the cross but did not die on the cross. So he was not a cursed person.
    It means that he was saved from death on the cross by some means.
    Taking Jesus up alive (at what time?) is not the only way to save him. Let Parvez tell at what time was Jesus taken up to heavens alive. Was it before he was put on cross or after it. How long after the crucifixion? parvez should not bring the false replacement theory into play. That is an impossible and bad idea and nobody (Jews and Christians) believe that. And Allah will not allow a devil (bad person) to look like a prophet.
    Jesus a.s. can be saved in many other ways. Powers of Allah are not limited. Parvez is following the Maudoodi theory about Jesus.
    But Maudoodi, in his commentary of Quran, Vol 1. page 420 said, “It is not clear that Jesus died on this earth or he was taken up alive.” In that way Maudoodi admitted his failure to understand Quran and the blamed Quran for not making the matter clear.
    The matter is clear to all that Jesus a.s. was put on the Cross, suffered much and was alive when brought down from Cross. He was treated with medicines by his friends. He lived and later moved away from his home land. He migrated from homeland like all other famous prophets of Allah, i.e. Abraham and Musa and Muhammad
    Allah miraculously saved Jesus from death on Cross.
    Allah had promised Jesus that he will die a peaceful natural death, not die by sword or by cross, and that he will be raised in ranks close to Allah after his passing away. ( See chapter Al-Imran).

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