Two international relations scholars, Ed Mansfield and Jack Snyder, suggest that one of the characteristics of transition to democracy is the weakness of state institutions and the tendency for political elites to use negative nationalism to gain votes.
In this case, the risks of internal conflict, and to some extent inter-state war, also rise. Countries experiencing such a condition, they argued, are categorized as incomplete democratization. On the other hand, consolidated democracy — as asserted by Juan Linz — reflects a condition in which none of the major political actors, parties, or organized interests, forces, or institutions consider that there is any alternative to the democratic processes to gain power, and that no political institution has a claim to veto the action of a democratically elected government.
Furthermore, democracy is classified into two categories: formal democracy, which relates closely to the procedures, and material democracy, the end result of democracy or, in other words, substantive democracy. Now, apply this concept to the case of Indonesia and ask, what can be inferred from it?