Hospitals and Health Care in Medieval Islam

Special to The Muslim Times.    By Zakaria Virk, Toronto, Ontario

  Hospitals and Health Care in Medieval Islam

Medieval Muslims adopted every institution of public service they found in the ountries they conquered (Syria, Iraq, Iran, and Byzantium) during the medieval times. In Iran they found houses for the sick called bimaristan (hospitals), functioning as a center of public health care. Muslim rulers in Central Asia, Khorassan and India changed the Persian name to Daru al-Shifa.

In the Islamic world a Hakim or a wise man has played a central role in the dissemination and transmission of knowledge, and he has usually been a writer, a poet, an astronomer, a mathematician or a physician. Both the wise man and physician are called Hakim. Many of the renowned scientists of Islam were physicians such as Zakariya al-Razi, Ibn Sena (Avicenna), Ibn al-Haytham, Ibn Rushd, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, and Qutab al-Din Sherazi . Since knowledge was not compartmentalized as it is today, a physician could be a scientist, a philosopher, an astronomer, & mathematician as well.

Islamic medicine was closer to modern concept of health care. It was Zakariya al-Razi who theorized that fever is the body’s natural defense mechanism. He was the first one to hint mind-body disease connection. Ibn Sena concluded that tuberculosis is an infectious disease. He set down empirical rules for testing the effectiveness of drugs, rules that will be applied for clinical drug trials nine hundred years later. He used word-association form of psychoanalysis, later used by Carl Jung. His theories about the mind found expression in modern psychology and science fiction. He defined the relationship between state of mind and state of physical health, later used by California professor Norman Cousins (d1990) who said:  “ten minutes of genuine belly laughter had an anesthetic effect and would give me at least two hours of pain-free sleep”.

The following passage from a 10th century manual for physicians reveals: “Since the science of medicine is very vast and the life of man too short to reach its end, therefore expert physicians … busy themselves constantly with the study of books and pore over them by night and day… Just as must read all the books written on the practice of medicine, so too must you know the relevant principles of natural science, of which medicine is a branch. You must also be proficient in the methods of logic so that you may … refute the fools who pass themselves as physicians… if you carry out you treatment effectively with diet… do not use drugs, for most of them are enemies … of nature”. [1] 


The first hospital in the Islamic World was built in Damascus in 706 by Umayyad Caliph Walid ibn Abdul al-Malik (668-715) which catered to the sick, the blind, and the lepers. All medical care was free. It employed many physicians. Its staff, organization and equipment served as a model for later hospitals. The Caliph assigned stipends for the physicians.

The Nuri Hospital in Damascus was founded in 1154 by Turkish Sultan Nur al-Din Zangi (1118-74). According to Egyptian historian al-Maqrizi (d1442), it was paid with the ransom of King of Franks. (al-Ifrang i.e. European). This remained a major medical center for next 300 years. As the hospital was built during the Crusades, it was equipped with large enough buildings & medical equipment to treat the wounded. In due time it became not only a free hospital, but a first class medical center for teaching as well. [2]

Sultan Zangi donated a large amount of books to this institution. Books were rare and expensive at this time because they were all handwritten. Books were printed on printing press in the 15th century. Medical records of all patients were kept with a list of patients, their personal information, and drugs administered to them. Physicians made rounds in the morning, in the afternoon they had their private practice and gave lectures to medical students in the evening. It was restored in 1975 and currently houses Museum of Medicine and Science in the Arab World.

 The central courtyard of Nuri Hospital. Wikipedia

Famous physician Allau al-Din ibn al-Nafis (1213-88) was a graduate of Nuri Hospital. He is credited with discovering pulmonary circulation of blood in 1254, 300 years before William Harvey in 1616. Al-Nafis knew that the heart had two halves and that blood passed through the lungs when traveling from one side of the heart to the other. Besides this he described capillary system as well as coronary system, which nourish the heart. Nuri Hospital remained operational for 700 years; some of the structure is still standing in Damascus.


The first free public hospital was opened during the Caliphate of Harun al-Rashid. Physicians were appointed to give lectures to medical students and diplomas. In the next hundred years five hospitals were built here. All royal physicians of Abbasid Caliphs at this time belonged to Bakhtishu family Christians or Jews. Hospitals were called Bemaristan – Persian, house for the sick.  Hospitals in Egypt were called Mustashfi i.e. place where someone restores health.

Caliph abu Ja’afar al-Mansur (714-775) appointed dean of the Jundi-shapur medical school of Iran as his royal physician in 766, & ordered him to have a hospital built in Baghdad. Caliph Harun al-Rashid (r786-809) ordered his royal physician Jibril ibn Bakht -ishu II (d829) to have a hospital built in the city which was completed in 790. Yuhanna ibn Masawayh (d857) was its director for some time, who made translations from Greek medical works and was teacher of celebrated physician & translator Hunayn ibn Ishaq. Al-Rashid hospital represented Jundi-shapur (Greek, Indian, & Iranian) influence which promoted hospitals as institutions dedicated to the treatment of sick.

Bookseller Ibn al-Nadim’s renowned book al-Fihrist references a Barmakid hospital whose director was ibn al-Dahn (or Dahanai) al-Hindi who translated certain books from Sanskrit. Another Indian medic Manka al-Hindi translated the book of Shusruta into Arabic. It appears that this hospital had strong Indian influence, and it was sufficiently organized to have a director.

Caliph abul Fadl al-Muqtadir (895-932) had two hospitals built in 918. One hospital was in the east end of the city named after his mother al-Sayyida and the other hospital in Suq Yehya, the west end of the city called al-Birmaistan al-Muqtadari. This hospital soon became a major medical as well as teaching center where Zakariya al-Razi (854-925) who was given the honorific title of Arab Galen, was director at one time, and taught his tudents. He tabulated minerals into six categories according to their chemical roperties the same principle that lies behind the modern Periodic table.

In 931 Caliph al-Muqtadir learned of the death of one of his subjects due to physician’s error. He instructed Sinan ibn Thabit to examine all doctors and prevent practicing until they passed a test. panish traveller Ibn Jubayr (1217) visited this 200 year old hospital,

“This great establishment is a beautiful structure stretching along the banks of Tigris. Its physicians make rounds every Monday and Thursday to examine patients and prescribe for their needs. At physician’s disposal are attendants who fill drug prescriptions and prepare food. The hospital is split up into various wards, each containing a number of rooms, giving the impression that the place is as a royal place in which every convenience is provided[3]


By 1000 Baghdad had five hospitals. The most famous hospital of Baghdad was Bemaristan al-Adudi which was built by Sultan Adud al-Dawla in 981. There were 25 medical practitioners employed here including ophthalmologists, surgeons and bone-setters. Students were taught medicine from the books in the hospital library, and some physicians had written medical books themselves. Ali ibn Abbas who authored the book Kitab al-Maliki (liber Regius) was a member of hospital staff. All hospitals were secular, hence there were Muslim, Christian and Jewish doctors working side by side. Some of the physicians had their private practice in the city. In 1068 there were 28 physicians employed here who used to see their patients on Mondays and Thursdays. In 1184 a traveller to the city described this hospital as a magnificent castle in size. It remained operational from 981 to 1258 when it was ransacked by Helagu Khan.

Naser-e Khushrow (d1088), a Persian traveller, described the Jerusalem hospital in these words: “Jerusalem has a fine, heavily endowed hospital. People are given potions and draughts and the physicians who are there draw their salaries from the endowment. The hospital and the Friday mosque are on the east side of the city”. [4]

 Mobile hospital was in use in Baghdad in 942. First field hospital was setup in 1122 by Mustaufi Aziz al-Din Baghdadi. When Sultan Saljuq was going on an expedition, all medical equipment and war machines were loaded on 200 camels including doctors, nurses, drugs and tents to cater the soldiers.


 There were 3 famous hospitals in Cairo: Ibn Tulun, Nasiri, and Mansuri.

It is said that Turkish general and Minister Fath ibn Khaqan (d861) built a hospital in Cairo, but no specific information is available. Fath was a prominent member of Samarra’s literary circle, and noteworthy as a patron of many writers and poets. One of his protégé was writer al-Jahiz (868) who dedicated his work fee Manaqib al-Turk to him.

Cairo’s oldest and first hospital was at Fustat built by Abbasid governor Ahmad ibn Tulun (835-884) in 872. Besides patients with physical ailments, mental patients were treated in a separate ward. Governor Tulun used to visit hospital daily, once a mental patient asked him for a pomegranate. Instead of eating, he threw at the governor, after that he never visited hospital. In Europe up to the 18th century mental patients languished in prisons, some burnt at the stakes, as insanity was considered work of devil. Fustat General Hospital contained 2 bath houses, one for men and one for women. All treatment and medications were free of charge. It had a rich library. Patients were given hospital clothes and assigned beds.

It was the first hospital in the Islamic world with waqf revenues which guaranteed hospital’s longevity. (Waqf is a charitable endowment under Islamic law, which typically involves donating a building, plot of land or other assets for Muslim religious or charitable purposes.)

The other four hospitals that were built with waqf endowment were: 1. Hospital of Badr Ghulam (d902) an army commander of Caliph al-Mutadid, Baghdad. 2. Baghkami Hospital of Baghdad built by Amir abul Hassan Baghkam (d940) commander of Caliph al-Muktafi (d908). 3. Ikhshidid Hospital of Cairo built by Kafur al-Ikhshid in 957. 4. Hospital built by Mulzzuddawal ibn Buwayh in Baghdad around 967.

In the 12th century Sultan Salah al-Din Ayyubi (d1193) built Nasiri hospital in Cairo. By 1183 this comprised of large buildings for men, women and a separate block for the insane. Patients were reviewed twice a day and put on special diet to improve their health.

Mamluk Sultan of Egypt Mansur Qalaun (d1290) suffered from colic attack during an expedition to Syria. He was treated at the Nuri hospital. After that he vowed that one day he will build a similar hospital. Thus the splendid Mansuri hospital was built in 1284 with an annual endowment of one million dirhams. Its structural design was same as Nuri hospital, its four buildings had cruciform shape, covering 10,000 square foot. It was a citadel converted to care for the sick.

It was called al-Maristan al-Kabir al-Mansuri.

There were wards for patients with fevers, gastrointestinal illness, eye disorders, mental illness, the wounded, and those requiring surgery. There separate wards for men and women, female nurses for women patients. There was storage for drugs, lecture halls for the professors, kitchen and room for medical instruments. Hospital had its own pharmacy. Those people who wanted for the doctor to treat them at home had to pay, and it was normal to give birth at home i.e. no maternity wards in the hospitals.

Medical care was free; any in-patient could stay without any time restriction. On the hospital grounds there was a mosque for the Muslims and a chapel for the Christians. This hospital remained operational for 650 years. Some part of the complex can be seen in Cairo still today.

In Alexandria there was a hospital, where strangers and foreigners were treated. Those who could not visit the hospital, people were sent to their homes to ascertain their situation. Upon return they informed doctors who would prescribe medication.

Hospitals in Palestine, Anatolia, Tunis and Morocco,

When Sultan Salah al-Din conquered Jerusalem again in 1187 he had a hospital built in St. John’s complex. There were separate wards for men, women and the insane. Patients were checked up in the morning and evening, they were given special diet so they could recover soon.

There were hospitals built in Anatolia in the 13th century, like al-Qaysariyya in 1206, Sivas hospital in 1217, and there were hospitals in Akeshir, Erzrum, and Konya.

Musicians came to these hospitals to entertain the patients. Each patient was given 5 pieces of gold when they were discharged. [5] During the Saljuq period 15 hospitals were built, 86 prominent physicians, and 50 medical works were produced. The first Ottoman hospital Dar al-Shifa in Bursa was opened in 1399. The hospital at Manisa was built by Hafsa Sultan, mother of Suleyman the Magnificent, in 1535. The most important hospital of Ottoman period Dar al-Shifa Sulemaniya was built in 1557.

In Islamic Spain first hospital was built in Granada in 1366 by Prince Muhammad ibn Yusuf ibn Nasr. There was a hospital al-Dimna built by Prince Ziyadat Allah in 830 in Qairawan, Tunis. In 1663 Bey Hammuda Pasha built a hospital for the insane.

In Morocco Sultan Mansur Yaqoob ibn Yusuf had a hospital built in 1190 in Marakesh. This was a fair size hospital where flowers and fruits were grown in the front yard. Water was supplied by aqueducts. In the 16th century, in Fez mental patients were housed in the house of Sidi Faraj al-Khazraji, the Spanish musician.


In Afghanistan Sultan Mahmud (r 997–1030 AD) is credited with having built madrasas (schools of higher learning) and bimaristans in Ghazna and other cities of the Empire. The bimaristan in Ghazna seems to have comprised different wings where patients suffering from different diseases were lodged separately. [6]


In India the Sultans of Delhi also built Dār al-Shifas. Another development that took place in India was the beginning of the process of synthesizing Arabian medicine and the indigenous Ayurvedic system. This process continued during the Mughal period as well.

Dr Iqtidar Hussain Siddiqui AMU writes:

treatment. As the climate of India was different from the foreign lands to which the conquerors and their physicians belonged, their ‘Ilm-ul-Tib (science of medicine) was not found sufficient enough to cure different ailments. They realised the need to interact with the experts of the indigenous ayurvedic system, in order to gain knowledge of their system and benefit from their experience. It was necessary because many herbs and medicines prescribed in ‘Ilm-ul-Tib were not available in India. Similarly, certain medicines used in the countries of different climate did not suit the patients in India. Thus the interaction between the Muslim physicians and the Hindu practitioners resulted in synthesising the two systems”. [7]

Men of learning and talent in medicine wrote medical books on the instance of the Sultans. For instance Ilyas bin Shahab wrote two books Rahat al-Insan (1385) and Tibbe Firoz Shahi. In the sultanate of Gujrat,  Shahab bin Nagori, associated with Muzaffar Shah I, wrote two books, the Tib-i-Shahabi (in verse) and Shifa al-Khani (in prose), both are extant. Many leading physicians of Delhi, both Hindu and Muslim, imparted medical training and knowledge to their students. Physicians were held in high esteem by the Sultans and Mughal Kings. There were 70 Daru –Shifa in Delhi. During the reign of Sultan Firuz Shah Tughlaq (r1351-88) there was a hospital in Firuzabad in which animals and birds were treated.

Features of Hospitals

How did hospitals look like from the outside, how were they run? Muslim travellers like Ibn Batuta and al-Maqrizi have provided this information in their travelogues. In the 12th century hospitals in Damascus and Cairo consisted of many rooms, including lecture hall, kitchen, storage, pharmacy, houses, mosques and some had libraries. There was no time limit a patient could spend as an inpatient. There were fountains in the hospital complex so that fresh water was always available. Men and women were admitted to separate but equally equipped wards. People with eye ailments had separate wings, so did people with other diseases. Free medications were dispensed from out-patient clinics. There was a roster for physicians who reported to work accordingly. Doctors made rounds. There were stewards and orderlies to help the physicians. The Waqf documents stated nobody was ever to be turned away.   Recreational materials and musicians were often employed to comfort and cheer patients up

Prof. al-Khalili says: “among the features in medieval Muslim hospitals that distinguishes them from their contemporaries elsewhere were their higher standards of medical ethics. Physicians there treated patients of all religions and ethnicities… they even adopted and adapted to Islamic thought the famous Hippocratic oath. “[8]

 Oath of Hippocrates

I swear by Apollo, the Physician, by Aesculapius, by Panacea, and by all the Gods and Goddesses, calling them to witness that according to my ability and judgment I will in every particular keep this, my oath and covenant: to regard him who teaches this art equally with my parents, to share my substance, and, if he be in need, to relive his necessities; to regard his offspring equally with my brethren; and to teach them this art if they shall wish to learn it, without fee or stipulation; to impart knowledge by precept, by lecture, and by every other mode of instruction to my sons, to the sons of my teacher, and to pupils who are bound by stipulation and oath, according to the law of medicine, but to no other.

I will use that regimen which, according to my ability and judgment, shall be for the welfare of the sick, and 1 will refrain from that which shall be baneful and injurious. lf any shall ask of me a drug lo produce death, l will not give it, nor will I suggest such counsel. In like manner I will not give to a woman a destructive pessary.

 With purity and holiness will I watch closely my life and my art. I will not cut a person who is suffering from a stone, but will give way to those who are practitioners in this work. Into whatever home I shall enter, l will go to aid the sick, abstaining from every voluntary act of injustice and corruption, and from lasciviousness with women or men … free or slaves. Whatever in the life of men I shall see or hear, in my practice or without my practice, which should not be made public; this will I hold in silence, believing that such things should not be spoken. While I keep this, my oath, inviolate and unbroken, may it be granted to me to enjoy life and my art, forever honored by au men; but should l by transgression violate, be mine the reverse.” [9]

The hospital was important place of learning as clinical medicine was taught in hospitals. There were lecture halls and well stocked libraries. Medical theory was taught in the mosque and madrasah, the practical side was taught in the hospitals. The Abbasid Caliphs decreed that medical students must write a thesis, just as the modern thesis, and upon its acceptance a diploma (ijaza) was granted by their professor (Shaykh).

 Pharmacies (Saydalas)

Al-Saydalas were first established in Baghdad in 754, where drugs were compounded and sold. Al-Attar sold simple drugs (Mufrid). The drug stores and the work carried on in them, was inspected by Muhtasib (inspector/controller). Market Inspectors were responsible for checking without warning the cleanliness of the containers, preparation of syrups, their dispensing & drugs (safufat – powders, pills – aqras, robs – rabubat, electuaries – ma’ajin). During the reign of Caliph Mamun al-Rashid (d.833) licensing system was introduced.

Physicians were not allowed to own or operate a pharmacy. In large cities, drug stores were owned by well off persons. While European apothecaries used dung and other substances, Islamic pharmacies used herbs and spices and such substances that showed positive effect on the patient. Al-Kindi, Al Razi, Ibn Sena, & al-Biruni, discovered many new drugs for their pharmacies.  Al-Kindi applied mathematics to medicine, particularly in the field of pharmacology. He developed a mathematical scale to quantify the strength of drug and a system, based the phases of the moon that would allow a doctor to determine in advance the most critical days of a patient’s illness.

Caliph al-Mamun and al-Mu’tasim instructed that all pharmacists must have a license for their business. Pharmacists were provided class room training, and gained experience about various drugs by working as interns.

The first medical formulary (Aqrabadin) was written in Arabic by Sabur bin Sahl (d.869). The book included recipes for compounding the drugs, remedies for ailments, their pharmacological actions, dosage and the methods of administrations. It was written as a guidebook for pharmacists. It was used for training until it was superseded Aqrabdin of ibn Tilmidh, dean of Adudi hospital.

In Baghdad the druggists and physicians had to pass an examination in order to obtain a license to practice. Licensed pharmacists were called Sayadala. Sinan ibn Sabit (d.943), director of Baghdad hospital, was the first administrator of licensing department and founder of public health system. [10]

Al-Kindi (d873) invented a branch of medicine called posology, which dealt with the dosages of drugs. In the ancient world dosages for the drugs were a guessing game. He created easy-to-use table that pharmacists could refer to when filling out prescriptions. By documenting amounts with a mathematical formula that anyone could follow, al-Kindi revolutionized medicine. Drugs could now be formulated according to set amounts with the result that all patients would receive standardized dosages. His book on posology, Risala fe ma’rifat quwa al-adwiya al-murakkaba was translated into Latin.[11] This system is still used the world over.

Administration of hospitals

A hospital was run by three officials:


  1. Administrator was in-charge of the staff and day today running. His appointment was political; therefore he did not have to be a doctor. 2. Director of the hospital was a doctor who was called ‘mutawalli’. 3. Chief pharmacist (al-shaikh al-saydalani) supervised the hospital pharmacy.


In Baghdad it was imperative for doctors to pass an exam before they could practice. In 931 Caliph al-Muqtadir ordered Sinan ibn Thabit (880-943), a physician himself, to conduct exams. He issued licenses to 860 doctors. Sinãn brilliantly directed the hospitals and medical administration of Baghdad and also started mobile hospitals in rural areas.

He was a Sabian, not a Muslim, and he cared for the faithful and unfaithful without discrimination.


In the 13th century Sultan Mansur Qalaun set up waqf for the Mansuri hospital which consisted of mosque, chapel, separate wards for patients, library and pharmacy. The hospital was housed in a vacant palace, it could house 8000 people, and 4000 patients were treated daily. Some hospital properties included caravanserai, shops, mills and villages. There were laws enacted in the 10th century that all hospitals be open 24 hours. Some hospitals were teaching institutions where doctors, nurses were given medical training.


Model for European hospitals

Islamic culture was far more advanced than Europe in the early middle ages. P.K. Hitti observes that “while (the caliphs) … were … (reading) Greek and Persian philosophy, Charlemagne and his lords … were … dabbling in the art of writing their names”. [12]

Christian and Jewish students studied in the universities of Islamic Spain where Arabic translations of Greek works, such as Aristotle, were available.

These hospitals in the Islamic world were used as prototype in Europe. Ibn Jubayr commented on the presence of Christian churches when he visited Sicily in 1185, but the only Christians institutions that he described that were set up on the model of Islamic hospitals were to be found in the Latin East, in Acre and in Tyre.[13] Hospitals were funded by donations from the founder, and other patrons.

During the crusades, Europeans began to establish hospitals inspired by the Arabs. The first hospital in Paris Les Quinze-vingt was founded by King of France, Louis IX after his return from the crusades 1254-1260.

Quinze-Vingts Hospital inspired by Islamic hospitals

At the very time European Christians were travelling across the Mediterranean”, writes Daniel Boorstin, “ to crusade against the Muslim infidels… Christian physicians in Europe were daily curing bodily ills by the wisdom of modern Muslim and Jewish doctors.[14]

When Islamic medical knowledge filtered into European medicine during the 12th century, so did their treatments for specific diseases. New herbs from the Islamic world were added to Western apothecaries while certain Western medicines, such as theriac, moved into Arab countries due to the growing Arab-European trade.

Prof Gibb, states: “Not only were there Arab scientists who showed great ingenuity in the practical application of scientific theory and the improvement of instruments, but their works were eagerly sought after in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. … It was out of this confrontation that there arose a new methodology, which utilized the observations of Arabic physicians which independently laid down the foundations of modern science”.  [15]

 Razi’s Kitab al-Havi (the Comprehensive book) was so popular in Europe that it was one of the nine works which made up the library of Faculty of Medicine in Paris in 1395.

Andreas Vesalius (1514-64) author of one of the most significant books on human anatomy De Febrica, which set the European medicine on a new path, wrote his doctoral thesis  Paraphrasis in nonum librum Rhazae medici Arabis clarissimi ad regem Almansorem commenting on and reformulating the medical ideas of al-Razi. [16]

As a tribute to two giants of Islamic medicine portraits of Razi and ibn Sena hang in the hall of Paris Faculty of Medicine. The stained glass of a window in Princeton Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ, USA church is decorated with a portrait of Zakariya Razi. In Vienna in 1522 and in Frankfurt the entire curriculum consisted of medical works of Razi and Ibn Sena.




  1. Edward G. Browne, Islamic Medicine, first edition 1921. New Delhi, 2003
  2. Ehsan Masood, Science & Islam, A history, London 2009
  3. Zakaria Virk, 111 Muslim Sciencedan (Urdu) Varanasi, India 2014.
  4. J. Lyons, The House of Wisdom, Bloomberry, New York, 2010
  5. Pierce Mitchell, Medicine in the Crusades, Cambridge Uni. Press, 2004
  7. Jim al-Khalili, The House of Wisdom, Penguin, NY, 2011
  8. Prof A.Y. al-Hassan, Science and Technology in Islam, UNESCO, Beirut 2001
  9. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Science and Civilization is Islam, UK, 1987[17]
  13. Hugh Kennedy, when Baghdad ruled the Muslim World, USA, 2004
  14. James A. Corrick, The Early Middle Ages, Michigan, USA 2006
  15. Michael H. Morgan, Lost History, National Geographic, Washington, 2007
  16. Daniel J. Boorstin, The Discoverers, Random House, NY 1983



[1] James A. Corrick, The early middle ages, page 86 (reprinted in Medieval Europe Edited by C. Warren Hollister)

[2] Prof. Jim al-Khalili, documentary showing Nuri Hospital …

2 Rehla ibn Jubayr, Travelogue – 1952

[4] Medicine in the Crusades, page 51



[5] A.Y. al-Hassan, Science and Technology in Islam, page 416.

[6] Indian Historical Review 39(1) 11–18 © 2012 ICHR SAGE Publications Los Angeles, London, New Delhi

[7] Indian Historical Review 39(1) 11–18 © 2012 ICHR SAGE Publications Los Angeles, London, New Delhi, 39 I (2012)



[8]  Dr Al-Khalili, The House of Wisdom, page 145

[9] Teaching Institution





[12] Quoted in J.A. Corrick,The Early Middle Ages, page 84

[13]  Rihla ibn Jubayr– Travelogue of Ibn Jubayr, 1952, p 346

[14] Daniel J. Boorstin, The Discoverers, Random House, NY 1983, page 347

[15] H.A. R. Gibb, pp. 90 & 91

[16] Michael H. Morgan, Lost history, National Geographic, Washington, 2007, page 190

[17] Author of this article has autographed copy of the book when he met Dr. Nasr in Kingston, Ontario in 2006

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