Holy Prophet Muhammad’s Letters to various Kings

Comment by Zia H Shah MD, Chief Editor of the Muslim Times

One of the best Western movie about the life of Prophet Muhammad is the Message, which you can see below. The movie starts with a scene of three riders taking three of the letters of the prophet Muhammad, to three different kings.


Suggested Reading: Forty Hadiths or Sayings of the Prophet Muhammad about Compassionate Living

Source of our post: Page 199 to 215 of Life Of Muhammad by Hazrat Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmud Ahmad

After settling down in Medina on return from Hudaibiya, the Prophet (saw) instituted another plan for the spread of his Message. When he mentioned this to the Companions, some of them who were acquainted with the customs and forms observed in the courts of kings told the Prophet (saw) that kings did not entertain letters which did not bear the seals of the senders. Accordingly the Prophet (saw) had a seal made on which were engraved the words, Muhammad Rasulullah (saw).


Out of reverence, Allah was put at the top, beneath it Rasul and lastly Muhammad (saw).

The invitation to Islam was an invitation to believe that God is One and that Muhammad (saw) is His Messenger. Where the letter says that if Heraclius becomes a Muslim, he will be rewarded twice over, the reference is to the fact that Islam teaches belief in both Jesus (as) and Muhammad (saw).

In Muharram 628, envoys went to different capitals, each with a letter from the Prophet (saw), inviting the rulers to accept Islam. Envoys went to Heraclius, the Roman Emperor, the Kings of Iran, Egypt (the King of Egypt was then a vassal of the Kaiser) and Abyssinia. They went to other kings and rulers also.

The letter addressed to the Kaiser was taken by Dihya Kalbira. The text of the letter which the Prophet (saw) wrote to the Kaiser is to be found in historical records. It runs as follows:

From Muhammad (saw), the Servant of God and His Messenger. To the Chief of Rome, Heraclius. Whoever treads the path of divine guidance, on him be peace. After this, O King, I invite you to Islam. Become a Muslim. God will protect you from all afflictions, and reward you twice over. But if you deny and refuse to accept this Message, then the sin not only of your own denial, but of the denial of your subjects, will be on your head. “Say, ‘O People of the Book! come to a word equal between us and you that we worship none but Allah, and that we associate no partner with Him, and that some of us take not others for lords beside Allah.’ But if they turn away, then say, ‘Bear witness that we have submitted to God’ ” (Zurqani ).


The letter to the King of Iran was sent through ‘Abdullah bin Hudhafara. The text of this letter was as follows:

In the name of Allah, the Gracious, the Merciful. This letter is from Muhammad (saw), the Messenger of God, to Chosroes, the Chief of Iran. Whoever submits to a perfect guidance, and believes in Allah, and bears witness that Allah is One, and has no equal or partner, and that Muhammad (saw) is His Servant and Messenger, on him be peace. O King, under the command of God, I invite you to Islam. For I have been sent by God as His Messengersa to all mankind, so that I may warn all living men and complete my Message for all unbelievers. Accept Islam and protect yourself from all afflictions. If you reject this invitation, then the sin of the denial of all your people will rest on your head. (Zurqani and Khamis).

Worth a watch: The Life of Prophet Muhammad: A BBC Documentary  (Click to watch)


The letter to the Negus, King of Abyssinia, was carried by ‘Amr bin Umayya Damrira. It ran as follows:

In the name of Allah, the Gracious, the Merciful, Muhammad (saw), the Messenger of God, writes to the Negus, King of Abyssinia. O King, peace of God be upon you. I praise before you the One and Only God. None else is worthy of worship. He is the King of kings, the source of all excellences, free from all defects, He provides peace to all His servants and protects His creatures. I bear witness that Jesus, son of Mary (as) was a Messenger of God, who came in fulfilment of promises made to Mary by God. Mary had consecrated her life to God. I invite you to join with me in attaching ourselves to the One and Only God and in obeying Him. I invite you also to follow me and believe in the God Who hath sent me. I am His Messenger. I invite you and your armies to join the Faith of the Almighty God. I discharge my duty hereby. I have delivered to you the Message of God, and made clear to you the meaning of this Message. I have done so in all sincerity and I trust you will value the sincerity which has prompted this message. He who obeys the guidance of God becomes heir to the blessings of God (Zurqani).

Know Prophet Mohammad Mustafa (May Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon Him) who is referred to as Nabi-e-Kareem (Chief of Prophets), Khatamun Nabiyyeen (The Seal of Prophets), Khatamul Ambiya (Leader of the elect), Khatamul Mursileen, (Pride of the Prophets), the Siraj-ul-Muneer, the Rahmatul-Lil-Alameen (Mercy for all Mankind)…

The holy prophet (saw) has been called “The Paraclete” & “Comforter”, “Spirit of Truth”, see John, 12:13, 14:16, 17, 15:26, 16:7 in the Holy Bible. Also at ISA 9:6 he is refered as the “Counselor”, “The Holy Spirit”…

Coming of Mohammad was foretold in clear and precise terms by Abraham, Jesus, Moses, Solomon, Isaiah, and many other great past prophets, including the prophets of Hinduism, Buddhism, etc. too; proofs are available in their books which proves the status of His superiority over all the other Prophets, as perceived by them @ http://www.alislam.org/holyprophet/

Click to Read: The Prophet Muhammad in the Vedas



The letter to Muqauqis was carried by Hatib ibn Abi Balta‘ara. The text of this letter was exactly the same as that to the Roman Emperor. The letter to the Roman Emperor said that the sin of the denial of the Roman subjects would be on his head. The letter to the Muqauqis said that the sin of the denial of the Copts would be on the head of the ruler. It ran as follows:

In the name of Allah, the Gracious, the Merciful. This letter is from Muhammad (saw), the Messenger of Allah, to Muqauqis, the Chief of the Copts. Peace be upon him who follows the path of rectitude. I invite you to accept the Message of Islam. Believe and you will be saved and your reward will be twofold. If you disbelieved, the sin of the denial of the Copts will also be on your head. Say, “O People of the Book! come to a word equal between us and you that we worship none but Allah, and that we associate no partner with Him, and that some of us take not others for lords beside Allah. But if they turn away, then say, ‘Bear witness that we have submitted to God.'” (Halbiyya, Vol. 3, p. 275).

Click to read: Muhammad: The Story of A Prophet and Reformer

Click to read: Did Prophet Muhammad kill 700 Jews?


The Prophet (saw) also sent a letter to Mundhir Taimi, Chief of Bahrain. This letter was carried by ‘Ala’ ibn Hadramira. The text of this letter has been lost. When it reached this Chief, he believed, and wrote back to the Prophet (saw) saying that he and many of his friends and followers had decided to join Islam. Some, however, had decided to stay outside. He also said that there were some Jews and Magians living under him. What was he to do about them?

The Prophet (saw) wrote again to this Chief thus:

I am glad at your acceptance of Islam. Your duty is to obey the delegates and messengers whom I should send to you. Whoever obeys them, obeys me. The messenger who took my letter to you praised you to me, and assured me of the sincerity of your belief. I have prayed to God for your people. Try, therefore, to teach them the ways and practices of Islam. Protect their property. Do not let anyone have more than four wives. The sins of the past are forgiven. As long as you are good and virtuous you will continue to rule over your people. As for Jews and Magians, they have only to pay a tax. Do not, therefore, make any other demands on them. As for the general population, those who do not have land enough to maintain them should have four dirhams each, and some cloth to wear. (Zurqani and Khamis).

Click to read: The Holy Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and Leo Tolstoy

‘Life of Muhammad’ PBS Series Explores Prophet Mohammad’s History

The Astonishing Story of Muhammad at Brampton Rose Theater

Muhammad: A Messiah for Our Time, By Khushwant Singh

Uman, the Chief of Yamama, the King of Ghassan, the Chief of Bani Nahd, a tribe of Yemen, the Chief of Hamdan, another tribe of Yemen, the Chief of Bani ‘Alim and the Chief of the Hadrami tribe. Most of them became Muslims.

These letters show how perfect was the Prophet’ssa faith in God. They also show that from the very beginning the Prophet (saw) believed that he had been sent by God not to any one people or territory, but to all the peoples of the world. It is true that these letters were received by their addressees in different ways. Some of them accepted Islam at once. Others treated the letters with consideration, but did not accept Islam. Still others treated them with ordinary courtesy. Still others showed contempt and pride. But it is true also—and history is witness to the fact—that the recipients of these letters or their peoples met with a fate in accordance with their treatment of these letters.

Suggest reads:

Muhammad in The Bible (pdf) by Hazrat Mirza Bashir-ud-din Mahmud Ahmad, Khalifatul Masih II 

Muhammad the Liberator of Women by Hazrat Mirza Bashir-ud-din Mahmud Ahmad, Khalifatul Masih II 

The Seal of Prophets – His Personality and Character | mp3 by Hazrat Mirza Tahir Ahmad, Khalifatul Masih IV 

True Love for the Holy Prophet(sa) (pdf) by  Hazrat Mirza Masroor Ahmad, Khalifatul Masih V 

Exemplary Compassion of The Holy Prophetsaw by  Hazrat Mirza Masroor Ahmad, Khalifatul Masih V 

The Life & Character of the Seal of Prophets(sa) – Vol. 1 (pdf)

Wisdom of The Holy Prophet (pdf 2MB) by Sir Muhammad Zafrulla Khan 

The Excellent Exemplar – Muhammad (pbuh) by Sir Muhammad Zafrulla Khan 

Muhammad: Seal of the Prophets by Sir Muhammad Zafrulla Khan 

65 replies

  1. wow! I heard and read about some of these letters to the various kings and leaders, I’ve never actually seen the original text. I’m amazed how the arabic writing was written and understood without punctuation.Subhannallah..nice article TMT

  2. Peace, fellow readers!
    I am truly awe-struck at being able to see the images of documents that are claimed to be the physical remnants of invitations to great leaders to tread a new path — the path of salvation — by our Prophet (Peace and Blessings of God be showered on him)! The imprint of the Prophet’s (PBUH) personal seal is awe-inspiring, as well.
    We must note the calm ‘Peace to all who do right’ benediction which sets the tone of each letter. All our present-day efforts to spread the message should strike the same tone.
    May the world soon recognize the one true faith — Ameen!
    Peace to all who seek the Truth!

  3. From the contents of these letter, one can see what a peaceful man our beloved prophet was. Whoever therefore said Islam was spaded by sword, says so out of mischief. Look at the how he instructed a king to collect only tax from the Jews and nothing else.

    This leave me to wonder where does all the so called extremist got their ideologies from and also wonder about the bitter hatred of Islam by the Jews.

    If Muslims could live life in accordance to the example of the prophet, we could have win the world.

  4. I love the simple seal of the prophet Muhammad(saws) Khattam annabiyeen( Allah above and rasool Muhammad(pbuh)
    Today ,there are numerous seals by different nations and tribes bearing their seals anything from eagles to vultures, to falcons , to swords to bears and all kinds of animals and weird objects , and then there’s the khattam of Promised Messiah and Imam Mahdi Ghulam Ahmad(as) Is not Allah sufficient for thee(alleissa Allahu bikafin abdah. Which of these seals resemble Allah above and his Rasool’s khattam or khittim or khattim of the prophets? just wondering

  5. One should strive to find out where actually these letters are preserved. I was unable to verify in Istanbul. May be Ms Salma J Khan can help further.

  6. The greatest man to have ever lived, our beloved prophet Muhammad PBUH, I am proud to be his follower, I wish to die as his believer, n to be resurrected in his envoy, just as we sight this letters may Allah SWT grant us the serenity to sight our prophet PBUH. La ilaha illa llah, muhammadur rasulullah SAW

  7. The letter addressed to Amir Mundhir Taimi of Bahrain decorated Lounge I of the Island’s International
    Airport. I saw it in 1978 while in transit en route
    Baghdad. It was carved in cement relief on the whole wall with a large 2×1.5′ coloured photograph embeded
    in the lower left hand corner. It was there until
    1980 but I did not find it in 1986 while in transit to Sharjah from Cairo. On inquiries it was found that the Government had removed it after the Mullas objected to to its display in a place where passengers were allowed to “smoke and drink alchohl which was a sacrilege”. A fellow passenger, a lady who was assistant to the Curator of Bahrain Museum
    told me that the original was on display in the main Museum. In 1980, a Bahraini business house (I gorget the name now) published a one page calender on card board with a facsimile of the letter. I it framed it and presented it to a Library in Islamabad.

  8. Alhamdulillah I’m so lucky to be a Muslim and I pity those people and the leaders who did not accept islam.if ALLAH SWT wills InshaAllah the letters will be preserved through time.May ALLAH SWT always guide us and keep us on the straight path.ameen

  9. Subhanallah…. I am so lucky to see the letter written by our beloved prophet {SAW} am very glad and am pround to be muslim.

  10. I live in Uganda but got a chance to view one the letters from a Turkish museum in Istanbul it was the best thing i had ever seen in life

  11. Indeed there is no God but Allah, the one true cherisher of the universe and both jesus and Muhammad (pbuh) are his messengers. Allah is far too pure to beget or begotten, you better take heed o! you christians, because u are spritually blinded from seeing the truth by your severally edited bible.

  12. Inna Llaha wa mala’ikatihi yusalluna alnnabiy, Ya ayyuhallazina amanu sallu alayhi wa sallam taslima.
    Muhammadur Rasulullah S.A.W.

  13. I thank allah for making me to be a muslim may allah take my soul as muslim.may thee guide and protect muslims wherever they are.peace and blessing be upon prophet muhammad and his family,companions with those that follow him till the day of judgement.my regard to muslims brothers and sisters

  14. All praise be to Allah and may peace and blessings of Allah be upon his prophet Mohammad saw.
    This is so wonderful website.

  15. Masha Allah!…it gives me goose bumps just to look at the images of the texts. My question is who actually helped our Prophet (saw) to write since he was illiterate?
    Jazakallahi khair.

  16. Subhan Allah,

    I was looking to see the sample of our beloved prophet written letters, as I want to invite non Muslim friends in my circle for Islam Insha Allah.

  17. It goes without saying that Prophet Muhammad (Pbuh) was the first person to initiate international interfaith dialogue especially with jewish and Christian leaders and scholars.In so doing he was trying to spread the Word of God as revealed to him.Most leaders had sound knowledge about the chain of revelation( The Old Testament,The New Testament ….and the would be Final Testament,The Glorious Quran).Negus and others were expecting the fulfillment of the Biblical prophecy,Muhammad(the intercessor,comforter and helper whose bithplace is Paran (Makkah) and who would enter Makkah with ten thousand saints or companion according to the Old Testament.The Illiterate or unlettered who shall not speak on his own but whatever he hears he shall teach or tell you.( For more information in this respect see my book titled: LA ILAHA ILLA ALLAH MUHAMMADAN RASULU ALLAH in the Holy Bible available also in French as LA SHAHADAH DANS LA BIBLE by Dr. Wajih Hamad Abderrahman published by BAIRUNI In Lebanon. . See also David Benjamin Keldani, Muhammad in the Bible ( The author was an ex-bishop,Ahmad Deedat,Abdulrahim Green among many others especially Dr. Laurence Brown,The First and Last Commandment,The Eighth Scroll,Goded and Misgoded.. A recent fantastic book on this highly sensitive but neglected dimension is this: Dr. Mark Siljander9 A congressman), A Deadly Misunderstanding.I think the content of the prophet’s letter may well be contemplated at an international conference held under the auspices of the UN especially when humanity seems to be heading towards global genocide.

    God Save Human Family wit His Guidance,Divine Revelation as sent to Moses, Jesus and Muhammad in addition to all other prophets and messengers

    Dr. Wajih Abderrahman
    ( PhD University of London, BBC prducer and translator, an advocate of interfaith dialogue , a professor of contemporary Islamic thought a linguist and teminologist ,playwright,and Dean, Faculty of Arts, Isra University Amman Jordan)

  18. At a time when the world is going topsy-turvy especially in the middle east,the cradle of the three Divine faiths,interfaith dialogue may be taken a step further by the UN and its Secretary General who is exerting tremendous efforts to advance the cause of peace..A recommended title for an international conference to dig deep in the Holy Scripture to look for global peace would be this:GLOBAL PEACE IN LIGHT OF THE HOLY SCRIPTURES or THE PROPHETS’ CONFERENCE.Working in the field of interfaith dialogue and being chair of the organising committe for an international conference titled’Missing dimensions in Cross-cultural Dialogue ” held at Isra University in Amman, The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan,I would only be glad to discuss the key topics for such a proposed conference under the auspices of the UN.Such topics may include: Jesus in Islam,Muhammad in the Bible,the economic feasibility of investing in divine values,Conflict-resolution in light of the Holy Scriptures etc. Please contact me on: eurab2013@hotmail.com or call me on 00962799378365 .I think world leaders may well need to put their heads together to save humanity and God bless all Dr. Wajih Abderrahman

  19. Alhamdulillah I knows more about how islam was spread in the world. May almighty ALLAH help in serving him well my brothers and sisters in islam. Ameen

  20. I thank for Almighty Allah as making me Muslim
    may Almighty Allah send blessing to our noble your choice servant peace be on u prophet Muhammad and your purification households
    may Allah live me as a Muslim and die me as a Muslim end of my breath to testifying that there’s no god except Allah and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah .Fatimatu is the flesh of prophet and aliyu is the commander of believers hassan wal Hussain are youthful of jannah.

  21. With the kindness of our beloved Prophet Muhammad (SAW), with the LOVE of Allah SWT. I am a Muslim which am proud of. Alhamdulillah Rabil’alamin

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