Bar Kokhba Revolt: A Metaphor for Our Times, Since September 11, 2001?

Written and collected by Zia H Shah MD
On the 11th anniversary of the tragic events of September 11th, 2001, I was thinking about the long term effects of the events that have followed the tragedy of epic proportions.  This thought triggered two words from my memory, Bar Kokhba.
Most Muslims and Christians will be hearing these words for the first time.  However, most learned Jews remember these two words and it is written in their memories with indelible ink.
What is Bar Kokhba and what relevance could it have to our times?  This is the theme of this post.  History has important lessons for us as it tends to repeat itself, for one reason or another.
Jorge Agustín Nicolás Ruiz de Santayana y Borrás, known as George Santayana (1863 – 1952) was a philosopher, essayist, poet, and novelist. A lifelong Spanish citizen, Santayana was raised and educated in the United States and identified himself as an American.  Santayana is well known for the sayings, “Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.”
So, perhaps we should learn a little history! Let me present the first two paragraphs of introduction about Bar Kokhba from Wikipedia:

After the failed Great Jewish Revolt in 70 CE, the Roman authorities took measures to suppress the rebellious province of Iuadea. Instead of a procurator, they installed a praetor as a governor and stationed an entire legion, the X Fretensis. Because the Great Revolt of 70 CE had resulted in the destruction of Jerusalem, the Council at Yavne provided spiritual guidance for the Jewish nation, both in Judea and throughout the Jewish diaspora. The tensions continued to build up in the consequence of the Kitos War, the second large-scale Jewish insurrection in the Eastern Mediterranean, the final stages of which were fought in Judaea.

Multiple reasons have been offered for the beginning of the Bar Kokhba revolt. One interpretation is that in 130 CE, Emperor Hadrian visited the ruins of the temple. At first sympathetic towards the Jews, Hadrian promised to rebuild the temple, but the Jews felt betrayed when they found out that his intentions were to build a temple dedicated to Jupiter upon the ruins of the Second Temple.[4] A rabbinic version of this story claims that Hadrian was planning on rebuilding the Temple, but a malevolent Samaritan convinced him not to.

The relevance of Bar Kokhba to our times may lie in the claims made in Qadian, India by the Messiah, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiani, the Founder of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community in 1880s, which culminated in his laying the foundation of a dynamic community, with love of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may peace be on him, and Islam, with a sincere missionary and humanitarian zeal.  He tried to dissuade the Muslims from getting into any armed conflict against the British Empire or the West and many a non-Ahmadi scholars vilified him for this sincere and divine guidance and continue to do so.  Ahmad claimed to be the Muhammadan Messiah, who has come in the spirit of the Israelite Messiah, according to the prophecies of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may peace be on him.  He showed that even though the same person has not come, as John the Baptist came to represent Elijah, likewise he has come in the spirit of Jesus son of Mary.  He wrote about several similarities that he has with Jesus of Nazareth and his community has with early Christians.
What were the results of Bar Kokhba revolt? Encyclopedia Britannica gives us the details in three short paragraphs.

During his tour of the Eastern Empire in 131, the Roman emperor Hadrian decided upon a policy of Hellenization to integrate the Jews into the empire. Circumcision was proscribed, a Roman colony (Aelia) was founded in Jerusalem, and a temple to Jupiter Capitolinus was erected over the ruins of the Jewish Temple.

Enraged by these measures, the Jews rebelled in 132, the dominant and irascible figure of Simeon bar Kosba at their head. Reputedly of Davidic descent, he was hailed as the Messiah by the greatest rabbi of the time, Akiva ben Yosef, who also gave him the title Bar Kokhba (“Son of the Star”), a messianic allusion. Bar Kokhba took the title nasi (“prince”) and struck his own coins, with the legend “Year 1 of the liberty of Jerusalem.”

The Roman historian Dion Cassius noted that the Christian sect refused to join the revolt. The Jews took Aelia by storm and badly mauled the Romans’ Egyptian Legion, XXII Deiotariana. The war became so serious that in the summer of 134 Hadrian himself came from Rome to visit the battlefield and summoned the governor of Britain, Gaius Julius Severus, to his aid with 35,000 men of the Xth Legion. Jerusalem was retaken, and Severus gradually wore down and constricted the rebels’ area of operation, until in 135 Bar Kokhba was himself killed at Betar, his stronghold in southwest Jerusalem. The remnant of the Jewish army was soon crushed; Jewish war casualties are recorded as numbering 580,000, not including those who died of hunger and disease. Judaea was desolated, the remnant of the Jewish population annihilated or exiled, and Jerusalem barred to Jews thereafter.[1]

The Holy Quran brings out the resemblance between the Prophet Muhammad and the Prophet Moses in the verse, “Indeed, We have sent to you a Messenger, who is a witness over you, even as We sent a Messenger to Pharaoh.”  (Al Quran 73:16) So, the resemblance between the two prophets and their followers is a common theme in the Islamic tradition.  I hope and pray that the Muslims fare better than their counterparts from the second century Judea, but, there is a very worrisome prophecy from the Holy Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him.  He said pertaining to the future of his people and their resemblance with the Jewish people or Israelites:

Surely things will happen to my people as happened earlier to the Israelites.  They will resemble each other like one shoe in a pair resembles the other – to the extent that if anyone among the Israelites had openly committed adultery with his mother, there would be someone who would do this in my Ummah. Indeed, the Israelites were divided into 72 sects, but my people will be divided into 73 sects. All of them will be in the Fire except one.  The Companions asked, ‘Who are they; O Messenger of Allah.’ The Holy Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, ‘They are the people who adopt my practice and that of my companions.’  (Al-Jame Tirmizi, Kitab ul Iman)

So, I raise the question Bar Kokhba: A Metaphor for Our Times?  I bring it out more as food for thought rather than any tall claims or predictions on my part.  For this metaphor the present day Western powers are equivalent of the Roman Empire and the non-Ahmadi Muslims are like the second century Jews, in as much as they have rejected the Messiah of this age and have some militant tendency.  In eleven years following September 11, 2001, we have seen constant engagement between the Western powers and the Muslim countries, Afghanistan, Iraq, Pakistan, Egypt, Libya and Syria to name a few, like the struggle between the Roman Empire and Judea.
Ahmadi Muslims in this metaphor will be equivalent of second century Christians, who refused to get into an armed struggle against the Roman Empire and when all was said and done, they rose triumphant over the Pagans and Jews and over time, in two centuries that followed, it led to Emperor Constantine becoming Christian and the Roman Empire taking on a Christian character?  Is that what is destined to happen in the next two centuries in light of the prophecies?  Which party would you like to be in?  Would you represent the Roman Empire, the Jews or the Christians?  This is the all important historical context that every inhabitants of the planet earth has to decide for oneself.  I for one would want to be in the boat of the early Christians and the present day Ahmadiyya Muslim Community.
Are we, indeed, in a time period replaying the events of Bar Kokhba in a metaphorical sense?  Timing is almost right, in my opinion!  Bar Kokhba was about 100 years after the attempted crucifixion of Jesus of Nazareth, as he did not die on the cross, and 132 years from his birth. September 11, 2001 was approximately 110 years from the formal beginning of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community in India in 1889 CE.  Do you see any resemblance?  I do!  But, may be, just may be, I am biased in favor of the following prophecy of the Messiah, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiani, as he drew parallels between the timeline of early Christian history and his community, in 1903:
O all people! Take note that this is the prophecy of the One Who has created the heavens and the earth. He will expand this Community of His in all the lands and shall grant them predominance over everyone through argument and reasoning. Those days shall come; rather they are close by when there will be only one faith in the world that is regarded with deference. God shall bless this mission in a most supreme and extraordinary way and everyone who is bothered to eradicate it will be disgraced and this predominance will be for all time until the Day of Judgment will come to pass. Bear in mind that no one will descend from the heavens. All our opponents who are alive now will all meet their death and then their remaining children will also meet their death and then their next generation will meet its death and even they will not witness son of Mary descend from the heavens. It is then that God will agitate their hearts in that the era of the dominance of the Cross would have also passed and the world would have adopted another tendency, yet Jesus son of Mary would have still not descended from the heavens. It is then that the scholars will be disenchanted with this creed and before the completion of three hundred years from today those who await Jesus, be it Muslims or be it Christians will be extremely embittered and losing all hope will abandon this creed and there will be only one faith in the world and only one leader. I have come to sow a seed, thus the seedling has been sowed through my hand. It shall now grow and blossom and there is no one who can stop it.[2]

Time will tell if my drawing of parallels between Bar Kokhba and current events turns out to be true.

Further Reading and Viewing

To learn more about the history of Bar Kokhba see a PBS documentary, From Jesus to Christ: The First Christians.

References

1.  http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/52477/Bar-Kokhba

2. TazkriatulShahadatain, pp. 64-65.

http://www.alislam.org/books/tadhkiratush shahadatain/index.html

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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For other uses, see Bar Kokhba (disambiguation).
Bar Kokhba revolt
Part of Jewish-Roman wars
First century palestine.gif
Judea in the 1st century
Date 132–136 (traditionally Tisha B’Av of 135);
Location Judaea Province
Result Decisive Roman Empire victory. Romans enslaved many Jews of Judaea, massacred many Jews, suppressed Jewish religious and political authority, banned Jews from Jerusalem, and renamed and merged Judaea into the Syria Palaestina province.
Belligerents
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Roman Empire Jews of Judaea
Commanders and leaders
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Hadrian
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Tineius Rufus
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Sextus Julius Severus
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Publicius Marcellus
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg T. Haterius Nepos
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Q. Lollius Urbicus
Simon Bar Kokhba
Akiva ben Joseph
Strength
Legio X Fretensis
Legio VI Ferrata
Legio III Gallica
Legio III Cyrenaica
Legio XXII Deiotariana
Legio X Gemina
Total forces from 12 legions;
60,000–120,000
200,000 Jewish militia
Casualties and losses
Many killed,
Legio XXII Deiotariana destroyed (per Cassius Dio).
Legio IX Hispana possibly destroyed.[1].
580,000 Jews killed (mass civilian casualties), 50 fortified towns and 985 villages razed (per Cassius Dio).
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The Bar Kokhba revolt (132–136 CE),[2] Hebrew: מרד בר כוכבא‎ or mered bar kokhba, was the third major rebellion by the Jews of Judaea Province against the Roman Empire and the last of the Jewish-Roman Wars. Simon bar Kokhba, the commander of the revolt, was acclaimed as a Messiah, a heroic figure who could restore Israel. The revolt established an independent state of Israel over parts of Judea for over two years, but a Roman army made up of six full legions with auxiliaries and elements from up to six additional legions finally crushed it.[3] The Romans then barred Jews from Jerusalem, except to attend Tisha B’Av. Although Jewish Christians hailed Jesus as the Messiah and did not support Bar Kokhba,[citation needed] they were barred from Jerusalem along with the rest of the Jews.[citation needed] The war and its aftermath helped differentiate Christianity as a religion distinct from Judaism (see also List of events in early Christianity).[citation needed] The rebellion is also known as The Third Jewish-Roman War or The Third Jewish Revolt, though some historians relate it as Second Jewish Revolt, not counting the Kitos War, 115–117 CE.[citation needed]

Contents

Background

After the failed Great Jewish Revolt in 70 CE, the Roman authorities took measures to suppress the rebellious province of Iuadea. Instead of a procurator, they installed a praetor as a governor and stationed an entire legion, the X Fretensis. Because the Great Revolt of 70 CE had resulted in the destruction of Jerusalem, the Council at Yavne provided spiritual guidance for the Jewish nation, both in Judea and throughout the Jewish diaspora. The tensions continued to build up in the consequence of the Kitos War, the second large-scale Jewish insurrection in the Eastern Mediterranean, the final stages of which were fought in Judaea.

Multiple reasons have been offered for the beginning of the Bar Kokhba revolt. One interpretation is that in 130 CE, Emperor Hadrian visited the ruins of the temple. At first sympathetic towards the Jews, Hadrian promised to rebuild the temple, but the Jews felt betrayed when they found out that his intentions were to build a temple dedicated to Jupiter upon the ruins of the Second Temple.[4] A rabbinic version of this story claims that Hadrian was planning on rebuilding the Temple, but a malevolent Samaritan convinced him not to.

An additional legion, the VI Ferrata, was stationed in the province to maintain order, and the works commenced in 131 CE after the governor of Judaea, Tineius Rufus, performed the foundation ceremony of Aelia Capitolina, the city’s projected new name. “Ploughing up the Temple” was a religious offence that turned many Jews against the Roman authorities. The tensions grew higher when Hadrian abolished circumcision (brit milah), which he, a Hellenist, viewed as mutilation.[5] Subsequently, it is known that a Roman coin inscribed Aelia Capitolina was issued in 132, right with the revolt beginnings.

Revolt

The Jewish sage Rabbi Akiva (alternatively Akiba) indulged the possibility that Simon Bar Kosiba (Bar Kokhba) could be the Jewish Messiah, and gave him the surname “Bar Kokhba” meaning “son of a star” in the Aramaic language, from the Star Prophecy verse from Numbers 24:17: “There shall come a star out of Jacob[6]

The Jewish leaders carefully planned the second revolt to avoid numerous mistakes that had plagued the first Great Jewish Revolt sixty years earlier. In 132, a revolt led by Bar Kokhba quickly spread from Modi’in across the country, cutting off the Roman garrison in Jerusalem.

Roman reaction

The outbreak took the Romans by surprise. Hadrian called his general Sextus Julius Severus from Britain, and troops were brought from as far as the Danube. The size of the Roman army amassed against the rebels was much larger than that commanded by Titus sixty years earlier. Roman losses were very heavy – XXII Deiotariana was disbanded after serious losses.[7][8] In addition, some argue that Legio IX Hispana disbandment in the mid 2nd century could also have been a result of this war.[9]

The struggle lasted for three years before the revolt was brutally crushed in the summer of 135 CE. After losing Jerusalem, Bar Kokhba and the remnants of his army withdrew to the fortress of Betar, which also subsequently came under siege. The Jerusalem Talmud relates that the numbers slain were enormous, that the Romans “went on killing until their horses were submerged in blood to their nostrils”.[10] The Talmud also relates that for seventeen years the Romans did not allow the Jews to bury their dead in Betar.

“The Era of the redemption of Israel”

Bar Kokhba’s tetradrachm. Obverse: the Jewish Temple facade with the rising star. Reverse: A lulav, the text reads: “to the freedom of Jerusalem”

A sovereign State of Israel was restored for two and a half years that followed. The functional public administration was headed by Simon Bar Kokhba, who took the title Nasi Israel (prince [lord, president] of Israel). The “Era of the redemption of Israel” was announced, contracts were signed and coins were minted in large quantity in silver and copper with corresponding inscriptions (all were struck over foreign coins).

Outcome of the war

A cluster of papyrus containing Bar Kokhba’s orders found in the Judean desert by modern Israeli archeologist Yigael Yadin.

According to Cassius Dio, 580,000 Jews were killed, and 50 fortified towns and 985 villages razed.[11][12] Cassius Dio claimed that “Many Romans, moreover, perished in this war. Therefore, Hadrian, in writing to the Senate, did not employ the opening phrase commonly affected by the emperors: ‘If you and your children are in health, it is well; I and the army are in health.'”[4]

Hadrian attempted to root out Judaism, which he saw as the cause of continuous rebellions. He prohibited the Torah law and the Hebrew calendar, and executed Judaic scholars. The sacred scroll was ceremonially burned on the Temple Mount. At the former Temple sanctuary, he installed two statues, one of Jupiter, another of himself. In an attempt to erase any memory of Judea or Ancient Israel, he wiped the name off the map and replaced it with Syria Palaestina (after the Philistines, the ancient enemies of the Jews[citation needed]), supplanting earlier terms, such as “Judaea” and Israel. Similarly, he re-established Jerusalem but now as the Roman pagan polis of Aelia Capitolina, and Jews were forbidden from entering it, except on the day of Tisha B’Av.[13]

According to a Rabbinic midrash (the Ten Martyrs), in addition to Bar Kokhba the Romans executed ten leading members of the Sanhedrin: the high priest, R. Ishmael; the president of the Sanhedrin, R. Shimon ben Gamaliel; R. Akiba; R. Hanania ben Teradion; the interpreter of the Sanhedrin, R. Huspith; R. Eliezer ben Shamua; R. Hanina ben Hakinai; the secretary of the Sanhedrin, R. Yeshevav; R. Yehuda ben Dama; and R. Yehuda ben Baba. The Rabbinic account describes agonizing tortures: R. Akiba was flayed, R. Ishmael had the skin of his head pulled off slowly, and R. Hanania was burned at a stake, with wet wool held by a Torah scroll wrapped around his body to prolong his death.[14]

By destroying association of Jews to Judea and forbidding the practice of Jewish faith, Hadrian aimed to root out a nation that engaged heavy casualties on the Empire. Yet, Hadrian’s death in 138 CE marked a significant relief to the surviving Jewish communities. Rabbinic Judaism had already become a portable religion, centered around synagogues, and the Jews themselves kept books and dispersed throughout the Roman world and beyond.[citation needed]

Long-term consequences and historic importance

Expulsion of the Jews from Jerusalem during the reign of Hadrian. A miniature from the 15th century manuscript “Histoire des Empereurs”.

Constantine I allowed Jews to mourn their defeat and humiliation once a year on Tisha B’Av at the Western Wall. Jews remained scattered for close to two millennia; their numbers in the region fluctuated with time.

Modern historians have come to view the Bar-Kokhba Revolt as being of decisive historic importance. The massive destruction and loss of life occasioned by the revolt has led some scholars to date the beginning of the Jewish diaspora from this date. They note that, unlike the aftermath of the First Jewish-Roman War chronicled by Josephus, the majority of the Jewish population of Judea was either killed, exiled, or sold into slavery after the Bar-Kokhba Revolt, and Jewish religious and political authority was suppressed far more brutally. After the revolt the Jewish religious center shifted to the Babylonian Jewish community and its scholars. Judea would not be a center of Jewish religious, cultural, or political life again until the modern era, though Jews continued to live there and important religious developments still occurred there. In Galilee, the Jerusalem Talmud was compiled in the 2nd–4th centuries. Eventually, Safed became known as a center of Jewish learning, especially Kabbalah in the 15th century.[15]

Historian Shmuel Katz writes that even after the disaster of the revolt:

“Jewish life remained active and productive. Banished from Jerusalem, it now centred on Galilee. Refugees returned; Jews who had been sold into slavery were redeemed. In the centuries after Bar Kochba and Hadrian, some of the most significant creations of the Jewish spirit were produced in Palestine. It was there that the Mishnah was completed and the Jerusalem Talmud was compiled, and the bulk of the community farmed the land.”[16]

Katz lists the communities left in Palestine:

“43 Jewish communities in Palestine in the sixth century: 12 on the coast, in the Negev, and east of the Jordan, and 31 villages in Galilee and in the Jordan valley.”[16]

The disastrous end of the revolt also occasioned major changes in Jewish religious thought. Messianism was abstracted and spiritualized, and rabbinical political thought became deeply cautious and conservative. The Talmud, for instance, refers to Bar-Kokhba as “Ben-Kusiba”, a derogatory term used to indicate that he was a false Messiah. The deeply ambivalent rabbinical position regarding Messianism, as expressed most famously in the Rambam‘s (also known as Maimonides) “Epistle to Yemen”, would seem to have its origins in the attempt to deal with the trauma of a failed Messianic uprising.[17]

In the post-rabbinical era, however, the Bar-Kokhba Revolt became a symbol of valiant national resistance. The Zionist youth movement Betar took its name from Bar-Kokhba’s traditional last stronghold, and David Ben-Gurion, Israel’s first prime minister, took his Hebrew last name from one of Bar-Kokhba’s generals.[citation needed]

A popular children’s song, included in the curriculum of Israeli kindergartens, has the refrain “Bar Kokhba was a Hero/He fought for Liberty” and its words describe Bar Kokhba as being captured, thrown into a lion’s den but managing to escape riding on the lion’s back.[18]

Further relations between the Jews and the Roman Empire

In 351–352 CE, the Jews launched yet another revolt, provoking once again heavy retribution.[16]

In 438 CE, when the Empress Eudocia removed the ban on Jews’ praying at the Temple site, the heads of the Community in Galilee issued a call “to the great and mighty people of the Jews” which began: “Know that the end of the exile of our people has come!”[16][19]

During the 5th and the 6th centuries, a series of Samaritan insurrections broke out across the Palaestina Prima province. Especially violent were the third and the fourth revolts, which resulted in almost entire annihilation of the Samaritan community. It is likely that the 4th Samaritan Revolt was joined by the Jewish community, which had also suffered a brutal suppression of Israelite (Mosaic) religion.

In the belief of restoration to come, the Jews made an alliance with the Persians who invaded Palaestina Prima in 614, fought at their side, overwhelmed the Byzantine garrison in Jerusalem, and for five years governed the city.[16] However, their autonomy was brief: with the withdrawal of Persian forces, Jews surrendered to Byzantine forces in 625 CE and were consequently massacred by them in 629 CE. The Byzantine (Eastern Roman Empire) control of the region was finally lost to the Muslim Arab armies in 637 CE, when Umar ibn al-Khattab completed the conquest of Akko.

Sources

The best recognized sources are Cassius Dio, Roman History (book 69) and Aelius Spartianus, Life of Hadrian (in the Augustan History). The discovery of the Cave of Letters in the Dead Sea area, which contained letters actually written by Bar Kochba and his followers, has added much new primary source data.

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.livius.org/le-lh/legio/ix_hispana.html
  2. ^ for the year 136, see: W. Eck, The Bar Kokhba Revolt: The Roman Point of View, pp. 87–88.
  3. ^ “Israel Tour Daily Newsletter”. 27 July 2010. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011.
  4. ^ a b Cassius Dio, Roman History
  5. ^ Christopher Mackay. “Ancient Rome a Military and Political History” 2007: 230
  6. ^ Book of Numbers 24:17: There shall come a star out of Jacob, and a sceptre shall rise out of Israel, and shall smite the corners of Moab, and destroy all the children of Sheth.
  7. ^ L. J. F. Keppie (2000) Legions and veterans: Roman army papers 1971-2000 Franz Steiner Verlag, ISBN 3-515-07744-8 pp 228-229
  8. ^ livius.org account(Legio XXII Deiotariana)
  9. ^ http://www.livius.org/le-lh/legio/ix_hispana.html
  10. ^ Ta’anit 4:5
  11. ^ The ‘Five Good Emperors’ (roman-empire.net)
  12. ^ Mosaic or mosaic?—The Genesis of the Israeli Language by Zuckermann, Gilad
  13. ^ H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, page 334: “Jews were forbidden to live in the city and were allowed to visit it only once a year, on the Ninth of Ab, to mourn on the ruins of their holy Temple.”
  14. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia: Martyrs, The Ten: “The fourth martyr was Hananiah ben Teradion, who was wrapped in a scroll of the Law and placed on a pyre of green brushwood; to prolong his agony wet wool was placed on his chest.”
  15. ^ Notes From the Levant: “The ‘Land of Israel’ Myth.” Retrieved on September 03, 2010
  16. ^ a b c d e Katz, Shmuel, Battleground, (1974), page 96
  17. ^ Wikisource: “Epistle to Yemen
  18. ^ The military and militarism in Israeli society: “By Edna Lomsky-Feder, Eyal Ben-Ari.” Retrieved on September 03, 2010
  19. ^ Avraham Yaari, Igrot Eretz Yisrael (Tel Aviv, 1943), p. 46.

Further reading

  • Yohannan Aharoni & Michael Avi-Yonah, “The MacMillan Bible Atlas”, Revised Edition, pp. 164–65 (1968 & 1977 by Carta Ltd.)
  • The Documents from the Bar Kokhba Period in the Cave of Letters (Judean Desert studies). Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1963–2002.
    • Vol. 2, “Greek Papyri”, edited by Naphtali Lewis; “Aramaic and Nabatean Signatures and Subscriptions”, edited by Yigael Yadin and Jonas C. Greenfield. (ISBN 9652210099).
    • Vol. 3, “Hebrew, Aramaic and Nabatean–Aramaic Papyri”, edited Yigael Yadin, Jonas C. Greenfield, Ada Yardeni, Baruch A. Levine (ISBN 9652210463).
  • W. Eck, ‘The Bar Kokhba Revolt: the Roman point of view’ in the Journal of Roman Studies 89 (1999) 76ff.
  • Faulkner, Neil. Apocalypse: The Great Jewish Revolt Against Rome. Stroud, Gloucestershire, UK: Tempus Publishing, 2004 (hardcover, ISBN 0-7524-2573-0).
  • Goodman, Martin. The Ruling Class of Judaea: The Origins of the Jewish Revolt against Rome, A.D. 66–70. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987 (hardcover, ISBN 0-521-33401-2); 1993 (paperback, ISBN 0-521-44782-8).
  • Richard Marks: The Image of Bar Kokhba in Traditional Jewish Literature: False Messiah and National Hero: University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press: 1994: ISBN 0-271-00939-X
  • David Ussishkin: “Archaeological Soundings at Betar, Bar-Kochba’s Last Stronghold”, in: Tel Aviv. Journal of the Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University 20 (1993) 66ff.
  • Yadin, Yigael. Bar-Kokhba: The Rediscovery of the Legendary Hero of the Second Jewish Revolt Against Rome. New York: Random House, 1971 (hardcover, ISBN 0-394-47184-9); London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1971 (hardcover, ISBN 0-297-00345-3).
  • Mildenberg, Leo. The Coinage of the Bar Kokhba War. Switzerland: Schweizerische Numismatische Gesellschaft, Zurich, 1984 (hardcover, ISBN 3-7941-2634-3).

External links

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1 reply

  1. I had to stop midway and comment, thank you for drawing these chilling comparisons, I will pass on the story of bar khoba.

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