Bulleh Shah: The Legendary Punjabi Poet

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Syed Abdullah Shah Qadri
“Bulleh Shah”
سید عبداللہ شاہ قادری
Bulleh Shah in the eighteenth century
BornSyed Abdullah Shah Qadri
c. 1680 CE
UchPunjabMughal Empire
(Now, PunjabPakistan)
Diedc. 1757 CE (aged 77)
KasurBhangi MislSikh Confederacy
(Now, PunjabPakistan)
Resting placeKasurPunjabPakistan
ParentsShah Muhammad Darwaish (father)Fatima Bibi (mother)
Main interest(s)Tassawufishq, philosophy, poetrydivine love
Also venerated by many Sikhs and socialists
Muslim leader
showInfluenced by
Also venerated by many Sikhs and socialists
hidePart of a series on Islam
Tomb of Abdul Qadir Gilani, Baghdad, Iraq
showSufi orders
showList of sufis
showTopics in Sufism
 Islam portal
Part of a series on

Punjab portal

Syed Abdullah Shah Qadri[1] (Punjabi: سید عبداللہ شاہ قادری (Shahmukhi); ਸੱਈਦ ਅਬਦੁੱਲਾਹ ਸ਼ਾਹ ਕ਼ਾਦਰੀ (Gurmukhi); 1680–1757), known popularly as Baba Bulleh Shah (or Bullhe Shah) (Punjabi: بُلّھے شاہ (Shahmukhi); ਬੁੱਲ੍ਹੇ ਸ਼ਾਹ (Gurmukhi)) and Bulleya, was a Punjabi philosopher, reformer and Sufi poet during 17th-century Punjab. He was a mystic poet and is universally regarded as “The Father of Punjabi Enlightenment”. He was a “revolutionary” poet who spoke against powerful religious, political and social institutions[2][3][4] and, thus, his influence can be seen on many noted socialists and rights activists. He lived and was buried in Kasur in present day Pakistan.


He was born around 1680 in Uch, Multan province, Mughal Empire (present day PunjabPakistan).[5] He was a descendant of prophet Muhammad through Sayeed Jalaluddin Bukhari.[5] His first spiritual teacher was Shah Inayat Qadiri, a Sufi murshid of Lahore. Bulleh Shah was an eminent scholar of Arabic and Persian.[5] After his early education, he went to Lahore where he met Inayat Qadri, and became his disciple.[1]

Bulleh Shah’s father, Shah Muhammad Darwaish, was well-versed in ArabicPersian, and the Quran.[5] Due to uncertain reasons, he had to move to Malakwal, a village of Sahiwal. Later, when Bulleh Shah was six years old, his family moved to Pandoke, which is 50 miles southeast of Kasur. Bulleh Shah was schooled by his father, along with the other children of the village. Most sources confirm that Bulleh Shah had to work as a child and adolescent herder in the village. It is confirmed that he received his higher education in Kasur. Some historians claim that Bulleh Shah received his education at a highly reputed madrassa run by Hafiz Ghulam Murtaza where he taught for some time after his graduation. After his early education, he went to Lahore where he met Inayat Arian, and became his disciple.[1][6]

He died in 1757, at the age of 77 and was buried in Kasur, where he had spent most of his life. A dargah was built over his grave. He was declared non-Muslim by a few literalist “Mullah” of Kasur and they had claimed it was prohibited to offer the funeral prayer of Bulleh Shah due to Kufr fatwa (allegations) put on him by extremists. His funeral prayer was led by Qazi Hafiz Syed Zahid Hamdani, a great religious personality of Kasur.[7]

He was buried in Kasur when he died around 1757.[8]

A brief biographical sketch of him is found in “Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature” (1987),[9] which reports C. L. Osborne as the pioneer to write an English monograph on Bulleh Shah’s life and work.


Bulleh Shah lived after the Punjabi Sufi poet and saint Fariduddin Ganjshakar (1179–1266) and lived in the same period as other Punjabi Sufi poet Sultan Bahu (1629–1691). His lifespan also overlapped with the Punjabi poet Waris Shah (1722–1799), of Heer Ranjha fame and the Sindhi Sufi poet Abdul Wahab (1739–1829), better known by his pen name Sachal Sarmast. Amongst Urdu poets, Bulleh Shah lived 400 miles away from Mir Taqi Mir (1723–1810) of Delhi.[7]

During his lifetime, he was outcasted as kafir (non-Muslim) by some Muslim clerics.[10][11] Bulleh Shah practised the Sufi tradition of Punjabi poetry established by poets like Shah Hussain (1538–1599), Sultan Bahu (1629–1691), and Shah Sharaf (1640–1724).[7]

The verse form Bulleh Shah primarily employed is the Kafi, popular in Punjabi and Sindhi poetry.[1] His poetry is a mixture of traditional mystic thought and intellectualism.[9]

Many people have put his Kafis to music, from humble street-singers to renowned Sufi singers like Nusrat Fateh Ali KhanFareed AyazPathanay KhanAbida Parveen, the Waddali Brothers and Sain Zahoor, from the synthesised techno qawwali remixes of UK-based Asian artists to the Pakistani rock band Junoon.[8]

Among the most distinguished persons to be influenced by Bulleh Shah’s poetry had been Sir Muhammad Iqbal.[12] It is maintained that Iqbal took his last breath while listening to his kafi.[13][14]

He is the “most famous and celebrated” Punjabi poet[15] and is widely recognized as “poet par excellence”.[16]

Philosophy and views[edit]

Bulleh Shah’s non-orthodox views and simple language played important role in popularization of his poetry. It has been noted in literature that “one reason for his all-time popularity is relatively modern vocabulary.”[17] Among the core tenets of his philosophy includes humanism, equality, tolerance, rejection of double standards and defiance of the authority of Ulama and blind faith in their authority. For his criticism of replication of beliefs (blind faith and following), the “Oxford Textbook of Spirituality in Healthcare” compared Bulleh Shah with Percy Bysshe Shelley.[18] Among major taboos in his philosophy was reciting words without comprehending them.[19] He was a reformer with very much conscious of the contemporary religious, political and social situations.[9][20]

In Bulleh Shah’s poetry, Sufism can be seen as an indigenous philosophy of political activism and class struggle[21] and resistance to powerful institutions like religion and imperialism.[2] Through his poems he spoke against “religious, political and social patriarchal high handedness” of his time.[4] This side of his poetry is evident from his defying of the imperial ban on dancing and singing,[22] and support for Sikhs, in general, and Guru Tegh Bahadur[23] and Guru Gobind Singh,[24] in particular, in their struggle against the imperialist Mughal Empire. Thus, his version of sufism is usually considered opposite to that of Ali Hajweri and other ‘more spiritual’ sufis who were confined to their libraries and schools and rarely participated in public discourse. A Pakistani scholar noted “those who wish their offerings at Daata Saheb (dargah of Ali Hajweri) consider whirlers at Bulleh Shah as kafir (non-Muslim/ non-believer).”[10]

Bulleh Shah was a “revolutionary” and “rebel” poet who spoke against powerful religious, political and social institutions of his time[2][3][4] and, thus, his influence can be seen on many noted socialists, progressives and workers and women rights activists like Jam Saqi,[25] Taimur Rahman,[26] Bhagat Singh,[4] Faiz Ahmad Faiz,[27][28] Madeeha Gauhar,[29] and Major Ishaque Muhammad.[30]

Humanism is one of the key attributes of the life and works of Bulleh Shah.[31] Thus, there is no wonder why he is equally respected among many MuslimsSikhs and Hindus of India and Pakistan.

Modern renderings[edit]

Bands and albums[edit]

In the 1990s, Junoon, a rock band from Pakistan, rendered his poems “Bullah Ki Jaana” and “Aleph” (“Ilmon Bas Kareen O Yaar”). In 2004, Indian musician Rabbi Shergill turned the abstruse metaphysical poem “Bullah Ki Jaana” into a rock/fusion song in his debut album Rabbi; the song was a chart-topper in 2005, helping the album to eventually sell over 10,000 copies and became immensely popular in India and Pakistan.[32][33]

The Wadali Bandhu, a Punjabi Sufi group from India, have also released a version of “Bullah Ki Jaana” in their album Aa Mil Yaar… Call of the Beloved. Another version was performed by Lakhwinder Wadali and entitled “Bullah”.[citation needed] Dama Dam Mast Qalandar, a qawwali composed in honour of Shahbaz Qalandar, has been one of Bulleh Shah’s most popular poems and has been frequently rendered by many Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi singers including Noor JehanUstad Nusrat Fateh Ali KhanAbida ParveenSabri BrothersWadali brothersReshman and Runa Laila. Other qawwali songs by Bulleh Shah, include “Sade Vehre Aya Kar” and “Mera Piya Ghar Aaya“.[8] In 2008, a version of Bulleh Shah’s famous verse, Aao Saiyo Ral Deyo Ni Wadhai, was sung by Shafqat Amanat Ali Khan, for his debut solo album, Tabeer. Ali named the song “Bulleh Shah” in honor of the poet.

Also in 2016, a collaboration between two EDM artists (Headhunterz and Skytech) named “Kundalini” used words created by Bulleh Shah, as well as having the words Bulleh Shah in the lyrics.[34] Bulleh Shah’s verses have been an inspiration to painters as well, as in the two series of paintings (Jogia Dhoop and Shah Shabad) by an Indian painter Geeta Vadhera inspired by the poetry of Bulleh Shah and other Sufi poets and saints. In 2017, British Pakistani singer Yasir Akhtar used Bulleh Shah’s poetry in his song “Araam Naal Kar – Take it Easy”.[35][36] In 2019, Sona Mohapatra used a Kalam of Bulleh Shah in her song “R.A.T Mashup”.[citation needed]


The 1973 movie Bobby song by Narendra Chanchal starts with the verse Beshaq mandir masjid todo, Bulleh Shah ye kahta. Some of Bulleh Shah’s verses, including “Tere Ishq Nachaya“, have been adapted and used in Bollywood film songs including “Chaiyya Chaiyya” and “Thayya Thayya” in the 1998 film Dil Se.., “Tere Ishq Nachaya” in the 2002 film Shaheed-E-Azam and “Ranjha Ranjha” in the 2010 film Raavan.[8] The 2007 Pakistani movie Khuda Kay Liye includes Bulleh Shah’s poetry in the song “Bandeya Ho”. The 2008 Bollywood film, A Wednesday, included a song titled “Bulle Shah, O Yaar Mere”. In 2014, Ali Zafar sung some of his verses as “Chal Buleya” for Bollywood soundtrack album Total Siyapaa, and the song was reprised by Zafar same year in Pakistan Idol.[37] The 2016 Bollywood films “Sultan” and Ae Dil Hai Mushkil feature the song “Bulleya”, sung by Papon and Amit Mishra respectively, which is short for Bulleh Shah.[citation needed] Poetry of Bulleh Shah was also used in 2015 film Wedding Pullav composed by Salim–Sulaiman.[8] A song “Hun Kis Theen” based on his poetry was also featured in Punjabi animated film Chaar Sahibzaade: Rise of Banda Singh Bahadur.[38]

Coke Studio (Pakistan)[edit]

In 2009, the season 2 of Coke Studio featured “Aik Alif” performed by Sain Zahoor and Noori. Ali Zafar also used some of Bulleh Shah and Shah Hussain‘s verses in his “Dastan-e-Ishq”.[39] In 2010, the season 3 featured “Na Raindee Hai” and “Makke Gayaan Gal Mukdi Nahi” performed by Arieb Azhar. In 2012, Shah’s poetry was featured with Hadiqa Kiani performing “Kamlee”.[40] In 2016, Ahmed Jahanzeb and Umair Jaswal performed “Khaki Banda”;[41] and Rizwan Butt and Sara Haider performed “Meri Meri”,[42] In third episode of season 11 Fareed Ayaz, Abu Muhammad Qawal & Brothers performed a Qawwali based on Kalam by Bulleh Shah.[43] In season 12 Hadiqa Kiani used verses of Bulleh Shah in the song “Daachi Waaleya”.[44]


In 2012, the government of Punjab, most populous province of Pakistan, renamed an important road in the provincial capital Lahore to “Bulleh Shah Road”.[45] In 2021, the government of Pakistan also approved his name for a road in the country.[46] Pakistan’s “largest renewable packaging facility” is also named after him.[47] In 2007, Pakistani senator Chaudhry Manzoor Ahmed raised the proposal for establishment of Bulleh Shah University in Kasur.[48][49] There is a housing community in Kasur called “Bulleh Shah Colony.” Also, a road in Kasur is called “Baba Bulleh Shah Road.” A roadway junction on Lahore Ring Road is called “Bulleh Shah Interchange.” An educational institute called “Bulleh Shah Institute” operates in Badhni Kalan, India, since 2003.

In the 1960s and 1970s, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto exploited the rising popularity of the ideas of Bulleh Shah, and the slogan of “Roti Kapra aur Makan” (that inspired the film Roti Kapda Aur Makaan) among the common masses and emerged as a populist leader who eventually became the ninth Prime Minister of Pakistan.[50] Bhutto used the term “Dama Dam Mast Qalandar” (a song adapted by Bulleh Shah) in 1973 to predict the political turmoil ahead.[51]

In March 2013, Hamza Shahbaz (on the behalf of Punjab’s chief minister Shehbaz Sharif) inaugurated “Yadgar-e-Baba Bulleh Shah” (a memorial to Bulleh Shah) in Kasur.[52] In 2015, in his address then Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif recited a verse of Bulleh Shah.[53][54]

In February 2006 then Chief Minister of Punjab Chaudhry Pervaiz Elahi addressed a conference at the University of the Punjab, in which he said, Bulleh Shah (and other Sufi’s) “were not only preachers, but also historians of social history.”[55]

Some testimonies of his influential life and work are listed below:


Bulleh Shah never published his works. However, a significant part of his work has been preserved and published formally in India, Pakistan and abroad. The following is a list of the books containing his poetic works (or its translation).

English works:

Other works:

Dama Dam Mast Qalandar is one of the most famous Sufi songs in India and Pakistan. It was originally written by Amir Khusrau, and was modified by Bulleh Shah. The version composed by Bulleh Shah was sang by Nusrat Fateh Ali KhanAbida ParveenLaal (band) and numerous other singers from India and Pakistan.

A brief biographical sketches of him are found in “Encyclopaedia of Untouchables : Ancient Medieval and Modern” (2008)[59] and “Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature” (1987).[9]

See also[edit]


  1. Jump up to:a b c d J.R. Puri and T.R. Shangari. “The Life of Bulleh Shah”Academy of the Punjab in North America (APNA) website. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  2. Jump up to:a b c Comparative theology in the millennial classroom : hybrid identities, negotiated boundaries. Mara Brecht, Reid B. Locklin. New York. 2016. ISBN 978-1-317-51250-9OCLC 932622675.
  3. Jump up to:a b Abbas, Sadia (2014). At Freedom’s Limit : Islam and the Postcolonial Predicament. New York, NY. ISBN 978-0-8232-5786-7OCLC 1204032457.
  4. Jump up to:a b c d Gaur, I. D. (2008). Martyr as bridegroom : a folk representation of Bhagat Singh. New Delhi, India: Anthem Press. ISBN 978-81-905835-0-3OCLC 227921397.
  5. Jump up to:a b c d Kumar, Raj (2008). Encyclopaedia of Untouchables, Ancient, Medieval and Modern. Delhi, India: Kalpaz Publications. p. 190. ISBN 978-81-7835-664-8OCLC 277277425It is said that from among the ancestors of Bulleh Shah, Sayeed Jalaluddin Bukhari came to Multan from Surakh-Bukhara three hundred years earlier. […] Bulleh Shah’s family, of being Sayyiad caste, was related to prophet Muhammad […] Bulleh Shah’s father, Shah Mohammed Dervish, was well versed in Arabic, Persian and the holy Qura’n. […] There is a strong historical evidence to show that Bulleh Shah was an eminent scholar of Arabic and Persian.
  6. ^ “Bulleh Shah”Sufi Poetry. 25 November 2009. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
  7. Jump up to:a b c Zia, Sidra (17 June 2019). “My visit to Bulleh Shah’s tomb made me feel an otherworldly sense of peace”Dawn. Pakistan. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  8. Jump up to:a b c d e “Bulleh Shah’s poetry in present day”Times Of India. 13 June 2012. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  9. Jump up to:a b c d Datta, Amaresh (1987). Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. p. 600. ISBN 9788126018031.
  10. Jump up to:a b Waheed, Sarah Fatima (2022). Hidden histories of Pakistan : censorship, literature, and secular nationalism in late colonial India. Cambridge, United Kingdom. ISBN 978-1-108-99351-7OCLC 1263249486.
  11. ^ Ghulam, Chatha Akbar (2012). Faith, Not Religions : a Collection Of Essays. iUniverse.Com. ISBN 978-1-4759-6461-5OCLC 1124524187.
  12. ^ Sud, Kider Nath (1969). Iqbal and His Poems – A Reappraisal. Delhi: Sterling Publishers. p. 41.
  13. ^ Indian Horizons; Volumes 26-27. New Delhi: Indian Council for Cultural Relations. 1977. p. 43.
  14. ^ Duggal, Kartar Singh (1980). Literary Encounters; Volume 1. India: Marwah Publications. p. 8.
  15. ^ Snehi, Yogesh (2019). Spatializing popular Sufi shrines in Punjab : dreams, memories, territoriality. Abingdon, Oxon. ISBN 978-0-429-51220-9OCLC 1098274711.
  16. ^ Roy, Anjali Gera; Huat, Chua Beng, eds. (1 February 2012). Travels of Bollywood Cinema: From Bombay to LA. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198075981.001.0001ISBN 978-0-19-807598-1.
  17. ^ Crossing boundaries. Geeti Sen. New Delhi: Orient Longman. 1997. ISBN 81-250-1341-5OCLC 38257676.
  18. ^ Cobb, Mark (2012). Oxford Textbook of Spirituality in Healthcare. Christina M. Puchalski, Bruce Rumbold. Oxford: OUP Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-150218-7OCLC 867929609.
  19. ^ Knight, Michael Muhammad (2009). Journey to the End of Islam. Berkeley: Soft Skull Press. ISBN 978-1-59376-552-1OCLC 826853777.
  20. ^ Dhillon, Harish (2013). First Raj of the Sikhs : the Life and Times of Banda Singh Bahadur. Carlsbad: Hay House, Inc. ISBN 978-93-81398-39-5OCLC 858762739.
  21. ^ Inam, Moniza (11 March 2018). “IN MEMORIAM: THE SUFI COMMUNIST”DAWN.COM. Retrieved 16 February 2023.
  22. ^ Bullhe Shāh,?-1758? (1996). The mystic muse. Kartar Singh Duggal. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications. ISBN 81-7017-341-8OCLC 35151781.
  23. Jump up to:a b Bullhe Shāh,?-1758? (2015). Sufi lyrics. C. Shackle, Inc OverDrive. Cambridge, Massachusetts. ISBN 978-0-674-25966-9OCLC 1240164691.
  24. ^ Lakshman Singh, Bhagat (1995). Short sketch of the life and work of Guru Govind Singh, the 10th and last guru of the Sikhs. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0576-4OCLC 858588727.
  25. ^ Inam, Moniza (11 March 2018). “IN MEMORIAM: THE SUFI COMMUNIST”DAWN.COM. Retrieved 16 February 2023.
  26. ^ Loye Loye Bhar Ly Kurye Sung By Taimur Rehman, LAAL Band., retrieved 16 February 2023
  27. ^ Wolf, Richard K. (2014). The voice in the drum : music, language, and emotion in Islamicate South Asia. Urbana. ISBN 978-0-252-09650-1OCLC 894227410.
  28. ^ Husain, Imdad, Ph. D. (1989). An introduction to the poetry of Faiz Ahmed Faiz. Lahore: Vanguard Books. ISBN 969-402-000-XOCLC 21322031.
  29. ^ Reporter, The Newspaper’s Staff (12 September 2013). “Ajoka holds festival to mark 9/11”DAWN.COM. Retrieved 18 February 2023.
  30. ^ Kazmi, Sara (2018). “OF SUBALTERNS AND SAMMI TREES: ECHOES OF GHADAR IN THE PUNJABI LITERARY MOVEMENT”Socialist Studies (Society for Socialist Studies journal)13 (2): 114–133. doi:10.18740/ss27242S2CID 150355584.
  31. ^ Civility, Nonviolent Resistance, and the New Struggle for Social Justice. Amin Asfari. Leiden. 2020. ISBN 978-90-04-41758-8OCLC 1130904784.
  32. ^ Zeeshan Jawed (4 June 2005). “Soundscape for the soul”The Telegraph (Kolkata newspaper). Calcutta. Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  33. ^ Bageshree S. (11 April 2005). “Urban balladeer”The Hindu. Archived from the original on 5 November 2012. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  34. ^ “Headhunterz & Skytech – Kundalini (Official Music Video)”. 10 May 2016. Archived from the original on 22 December 2021. Retrieved 17 January 2020 – via YouTube.
  35. ^ “Yasir Akhtar | Araam Naal Kar – Take it Easy ft.Martay M’Kenzy (Official Video)”. Yasir Akhtar. 3 February 2017. Archived from the original on 22 December 2021. Retrieved 16 February 2017 – via YouTube.
  36. ^ “Yasir Akhtar, the singing sensation, is back with ‘Aram Nal Kar'”. Tanveer Khatana. 11 February 2017. Retrieved 16 February 2017 – via Geo News.
  37. ^ “Lady Dada’s Nightmare – I | Instep”The News International. 15 June 2014. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  38. ^ “Sikh history hasn’t been documented well and some of the versions available are inaccurate | Cities News,The Indian Express”The Indian Express. 9 November 2016. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  39. ^ “Dastaan-e-ishq, Ali Zafar – BTS, Coke Studio Pakistan, Season 2”. Rohail Hyatt. 23 June 2009. Archived from the original on 22 December 2021 – via YouTube.
  40. ^ Ata ur Rehman (12 May 2012). “Hadiqa Kiani Kamlee, Coke Studio Season 5 Episode 1”. Pakium.com. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  41. ^ “Watch Coke Studio 9 Episode 3 promo | the News Teller”. Archived from the original on 9 October 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  42. ^ “Watch Coke Studio 9 Episode 6 | the News Teller”. Archived from the original on 27 September 2016. Retrieved 4 November 2016.
  43. ^ “Coke Studio releases third episode of Season 11”The Nation. Pakistan. 25 August 2018. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  44. ^ “Coke Studio brings love ballads and Sufi poetry from top stars | Pakistani Cinema”Gulf News. 25 November 2019. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  45. ^ Hasnain, Khalid (31 January 2013). “Roads, intersections’ naming: Shahbaz approves CDGL’s summary”DAWN.COM. Dawn. Retrieved 27 July 2022.
  46. ^ Hasnain, Khalid (16 August 2021). “Lahore streets, intersections to be named after famous personalities”DAWN.COM. Dawn. Retrieved 27 July 2022.
  47. ^ “Home”http://www.bullehshah.com.pk. Bulleh Shah Packaging (Pvt.) Limited. Retrieved 27 July 2022.
  48. ^ “Demand for Bulleh Shah university”DAWN.COM. Dawn. 27 August 2007. Retrieved 27 July 2022.
  49. ^ Shaikh, Ahsan ul haq (9 January 2022). “UNIVERSITY IN CHUNIAN”DAWN.COM. Dawn. Retrieved 27 July 2022.
  50. ^ “Bhutto’s ideology is need of the hour”Daily Times. 5 January 2020. Retrieved 18 February 2023.
  51. ^ Sharjeel, Shahzad (6 December 2019). “The myriad interpretations of Sufi anthem ‘Mast Qalandar'”Deccan Chronicle. Retrieved 18 February 2023.
  52. ^ “Facebook”http://www.facebook.com. Retrieved 18 February 2023.
  53. ^ “PM Nawaz Recties Bulleh Shah Poetry While Addressing Parsi Community – video Dailymotion”Dailymotion. 20 August 2015. Retrieved 18 February 2023.
  54. ^ “Nawaz pledges equal status to minorities”The Nation. 10 May 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2023.
  55. ^ Drage, Teresa Ann (2015). The National Sufi Council: Redefining the Islamic Republic of Pakistan through a discourse on Sufism after 9/11 (PhD thesis)University of Western Sydney. p. 130.
  56. ^ “https://twitter.com/shoaib100mph/status/756827072803274752”Twitter. Retrieved 18 February 2023. {{cite web}}: External link in |title= (help)
  57. ^ Bullhe Shāh,?-1758? (2015). Bulleh Shah : a selection. Taufiq Rafat. Karachi, Pakistan. ISBN 978-0-19-940288-5OCLC 927190615.
  58. ^ Kohli, Surindar Singh (1987). Bulhe Shah. Sahitya Akademi.
  59. ^ Kumar, Raj (2008). Encyclopaedia of untouchables ancient, medieval and modern. Delhi: Kalpaz Publications. ISBN 978-81-7835-664-8OCLC 277277425.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bulleh Shah.

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Works online[edit]

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