The Racialization of Islam in the United States: Islamophobia, Hate Crimes, and “Flying while Brown”



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Source: Religions

By Craig Considine; Department of Sociology, Rice University; 6100 Main St., Houston, TX 770055, USA


This paper explores the intersectionality of race and Islamophobia by using a set of empirical data relating to the experiences of American Muslims and non-Muslims in the United States. Through a multi-tiered methodology, the paper reveals how racialization processes interact with Islamophobic discourses and actions in American society. Specifically, the dataset is anchored in U.S. public perceptions of American Muslims, hate crime incidents against Muslims and non-Muslims, and the institutionalization of Islamophobia. The paper, which shows how race is endemic to Islamophobic incidents, appeals to the general U.S. public, especially community members from religious, political, academic, civil rights, and social justice backgrounds. View Full-Text

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Read the whole article here in PDF file: Religions

1 reply

  1. As we know that Islam and our Prophet Muhammad were born in Saudi Arabia. Million Muslims go to Necca every year. Thousand Saudi Arabian student or visitor come to United States of America. Unfortunately, how many American women go Saudi Arabia every year? Maybe none
    or less 1 hundred. Why? Because Saudi Arabia treat foriends women badly… till today, can you imagine it ?

    So as long as Saudi Arabia treat women badly, will create Islamophobia, hate crime, discrimination, racialsm American Muslims, will affect me, you, and our family soon or later.
    Let us speak loundly , endlessly, until our voice be heard, and demand Saudi Arabia to obey Human Right and women right.
    May Allah guide King of Saufi Arabia to the right path of Islam. Amiin

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