The Racialization of Islam in the United States: Islamophobia, Hate Crimes, and “Flying while Brown”



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Source: Religions

By Craig Considine; Department of Sociology, Rice University; 6100 Main St., Houston, TX 770055, USA


This paper explores the intersectionality of race and Islamophobia by using a set of empirical data relating to the experiences of American Muslims and non-Muslims in the United States. Through a multi-tiered methodology, the paper reveals how racialization processes interact with Islamophobic discourses and actions in American society. Specifically, the dataset is anchored in U.S. public perceptions of American Muslims, hate crime incidents against Muslims and non-Muslims, and the institutionalization of Islamophobia. The paper, which shows how race is endemic to Islamophobic incidents, appeals to the general U.S. public, especially community members from religious, political, academic, civil rights, and social justice backgrounds. View Full-Text

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Read the whole article here in PDF file: Religions

9 replies

  1. As we know that Islam and our Prophet Muhammad were born in Saudi Arabia. Million Muslims go to Necca every year. Thousand Saudi Arabian student or visitor come to United States of America. Unfortunately, how many American women go Saudi Arabia every year? Maybe none
    or less 1 hundred. Why? Because Saudi Arabia treat foriends women badly… till today, can you imagine it ?

    So as long as Saudi Arabia treat women badly, will create Islamophobia, hate crime, discrimination, racialsm American Muslims, will affect me, you, and our family soon or later.
    Let us speak loundly , endlessly, until our voice be heard, and demand Saudi Arabia to obey Human Right and women right.
    May Allah guide King of Saufi Arabia to the right path of Islam. Amiin

    • Let us speak loud and clear until our Muslim brothers hear our voices to mend their ways to stop hate crimes towards elders, poor, women, children and develop tolerance towards opposite schools of thought.

      Disclaimer: Everybody has right to free thinking and opinionلاَ إِكْرَاهَ فِي الدِّينِ I am expressing my opinion. I have no intention to offend anybody.

  2. Mohtram Somi Tempo, Hazrat Mirza Sb abrogated Jihad of sword over 100 years ago. He instilled love, peace, harmony and Justice in our minds and heart. We are called non Muslim because we strive for this noble cause of service to humanity. Hazrat Mirza Sahib has done his part. Now it is up to us to practice love, peace, harmony and Justice.

    No one should should practice these verses today.These were for special circumstances. Hazrat Mirza Sb said instead of sword we must be rational with our opponents.

    “Love for all, hatred for none” is our motto

    • I would not use the words ‘abrogated’, rather that he shows us the now valid interpretation.

    • @ Khalid. I believe that your leader abrogated Jihad sword 100 years ago. Now please tell me Khalid, do Ahmadiyyah Pratice Jesus Teaching as I post it here.


      Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) command Muslims many times in Al Quran Q.3:1-5 to believe in and obey Jesus (pbuh) teaching. Those who practice Jesus teaching Allah will fill his heart with full love, mercy, the light of guidance to achieve Allah’s reward, Paradise on earth and Hereafter; as below:
      Then, in their wake, We followed them up with (others of) Our Messengers: We sent after them ‘Isa the son of Maryam, and bestowed on him the Gospel; and We ordained in the hearts of those who followed him Love,or Compassion and Mercy. Q.57;27.

      And in their footsteps We sent Jesus the son of Mary, confirming the law that had come before him: We sent him the Gospel: therein was guidance and light, and confirmation of the law that had come before him: a guidance and an admonition to those who fear Allah.(taqwa) Q.5;46.

      Behold! Allah said: “O Jesus! I will take thee and raise thee to Myself and clear thee (of the falsehoods) of those who blaspheme; I will make those who follow thee superior to those who reject Faith, to the Day of Resurrection; then shall ye all return unto Me, and I will judge between you of the matters wherein ye dispute. Q.3;55.

      Jesus teaching as below;
      Matthew 22.37. Jesus replied: “‘Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind.This is the first and greatest commandment. And the second is like it: ‘Love your neighbor as yourself.All the Law and the Prophets hang on these two commandments.”

      Matthew 5:44 But I tell you: Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you,

      Proverbs 25:21 If your enemy is hungry, give him food to eat; if he is thirsty, give him water to drink.

      Luke 6:27 “But I tell you who hear me: Love your enemies, do good to those who hate you,

      (Laviticus 19:33). Do not mistreat or oppress a foreigner in living in your country, love them as you love self. Remember that you were foreigner in Egypt”. .

      In other words, those who do not read and practice Jesus’s teaching will not get love, or compassion, mercy and guidance from Allah (swt). Their heart will be filled by hatred or satan, then they will do what satan ask them to do. Satan is against what Allah ask people to do. Satan wants people go to hell with him by doing violence, talking slander, backbiting and being rude to people.
      All love

    • @Khalif : Do you really believe in all Ptiphets all His books?

      If we ask Muslims; do you believe in Jesus and Injil, Taurat? He or She will answers “YES”. Actually, he lie and try to deceive Allah; Allah know it. and Allah warn these people as follow;

      And among men there are some who say, “We believe in Allah and in the Last Day”, yet they are not believers. (8) They try to deceive Allah and those who believe, while they are not deceiving anyone except themselves, although they are unaware of it. Q.2:8-9.

      They believe on her Lips only. The true belief they have to read and practice the rule of Allah in all His books. Otherwise they lie and deceive themselves.

      Hopefully Ahmadiyyah are the true believers not like Hypocrite!

  3. Mohtram Rafiq Sb, you entitled to your opinion but Hazrat Maseh Maud (as) has said the followings:

    ” ABANDON the thought of Jihadi warfare now; It is now FORBIDDEN to go to war for faith”. Maseh has come, Now is the END of all wars of violence. It is now FUTILE to issue an edict for battle and fighting. Now Jihadist is the ENEMY OF GOD and he is a non-believer of Prophet. It is better toleave that خبیث ” .After my warning, anybody who goes to war, will be severely disgraced by the enemy.

    These are stronger words of Hazrat Mirza Sb. Hazrat Mirza Sb called the guy who does not believe it, the ENEMY OF GOD,NON_BELIEVER of Prophet and خبیث ” .

    Ref:Tuhfah-Golarviyah, Ruhani Khzazin, Vol17, P77-78

    Today This is point #2 of “true Islam” directive given by Hazrat Khalifatul Maseh V (aba).
    “True Islam rejects violent jihad, whether it be against Muslims or non-Muslims”.

    Love and peace for all.

    Disclaimer: Everybody has right to free thinking and opinionلاَ إِكْرَاهَ فِي الدِّينِ I am expressing my opinion. I have no intention to offend anybody.

  4. Correct, you did not see the word “abrogate” .

    very interesting.

    Please note that he wrote this in URDU language. The word “abrogate” is not urdu.
    Please read it, translate it and lets see your translation of ( Ref:Tuhfah-Golarviyah, Ruhani Khzazin, Vol17, P77-78 )

    Probably you commented back without reading his original words in urdu.

    Please take these page ( Ref:Tuhfah-Golarviyah, Ruhani Khzazin, Vol17, P77-78 ) to a person who can read urdu.

    You will find urdu of abrogation, more than once.


    Love and peace for all.

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