Nobody told Mr. Putin that only the USA is permitted to militarily engage abroad

US Interventions


US Military and Clandestine Operations in Foreign Countries – 1798-Present

Global Policy Forum
December 2005

Note: This list does not pretend to be definitive or absolutely complete. Nor does it seek to explain or interpret the interventions. Information and interpretation on selected interventions will be later included as links. Note that US operations in World Wars I and II have been excluded.

1798-1800FranceUndeclared naval war against France, marines land in Puerto Plata.
1801-1805TripoliWar with Tripoli (Libya), called “First Barbary War”.
1806Spanish MexicoMilitary force enters Spanish territory in headwaters of the Rio Grande.
1806-1810Spanish and French in CaribbeanUS naval vessels attack French and Spanish shipping in the Caribbean.
1810Spanish West FloridaTroops invade and seize Western Florida, a Spanish possession.
1812Spanish East FloridaTroops seize Amelia Island and adjacent territories.
1812BritainWar of 1812, includes naval and land operations.
1813Marquesas IslandForces seize Nukahiva and establish first US naval base in the Pacific.
1814Spanish (East Florida)Troops seize Pensacola in Spanish East Florida.
1814-1825French, British and Spanish in CaribbeanUS naval squadron engages French, British and Spanish shipping in the Caribbean.
1815Algiers and TripoliUS naval fleet under Captain Stephen Decatur wages “Second Barbary War” in North Africa.
1816-1819Spanish East FloridaTroops attack and seize Nicholls’ Fort, Amelia Island and other strategic locations. Spain eventually cedes East Florida to the US.
1822-1825Spanish Cuba and Puerto RicoMarines land in numerous cities in the Spanish island of Cuba and also in Spanish Puerto Rico.
1827GreeceMarines invade the Greek islands of Argentiere, Miconi and Andross.
1831Falkland/Malvinas IslandsUS naval squadrons aggress the Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic.
1832Sumatra, Dutch East IndiesUS naval squadrons attack Qallah Battoo.
1833ArgentinaForces land in Buenos Aires and engage local combatants.
1835-1836PeruTroops dispatched twice for counter-insurgency operations.
1836MexicoTroops assist Texas war for independence.
1837CanadaNaval incident on the Canadian border leads to mobilization of a large force to invade Canada. War is narrowly averted.
1838Sumatra, Dutch East IndiesUS naval forces sent to Sumatra for punitive expedition.
1840-1841FijiNaval forces deployed, marines land.
1841SamoaNaval forces deployed, marines land.
1842MexicoNaval forces temporarily seize cities of Monterey and San Diego.
1843ChinaMarines land in Canton.
1843Ivory CoastMarines land.
1846-1848MexicoFull-scale war. Mexico cedes half of its territory to the US by the Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo.
1849Ottoman Empire (Turkey)Naval force dispatched to Smyrna.
1852-1853ArgentinaMarines land in Buenos Aires.
1854NicaraguaNavy bombards and largely destroys city of San Juan del Norte. Marines land and set fire to the city.
1854JapanCommodore Perry and his fleet deploy at Yokohama.
1855UruguayMarines land in Montevideo.
1856Colombia (Panama Region)Marines land for counter-insurgency campaign.
1856ChinaMarines deployed in Canton.
1856HawaiiNaval forces seize small islands of Jarvis, Baker and Howland in the Hawaiian Islands.
1857NicaraguaMarines land.
1858UruguayMarines land in Montevideo.
1858FijiMarines land.
1859ParaguayLarge naval force deployed.
1859ChinaTroops enter Shanghai.
1859MexicoMilitary force enters northern area.
1860Portuguese West AfricaTroops land at Kissembo.
1860Colombia (Panama Region)Troops and naval forces deployed.
1863JapanTroops land at Shimonoseki.
1864JapanTroops landed in Yedo.
1865Colombia (Panama Region)Marines landed.
1866Colombia (Panama Region)Troops invade and seize Matamoros, later withdraw.
1866ChinaMarines land in Newchwang.
1867NicaraguaMarines land in Managua and Leon in Nicaragua.
1867Formosa Island (Taiwan)Marines land.
1867Midway IslandNaval forces seize this island in the Hawaiian Archipelago for a naval base.
1868JapanNaval forces deployed at Osaka, Hiogo, Nagasaki, Yokohama and Negata.
1868UruguayMarines land at Montevideo.
1870ColombiaMarines landed.
1871KoreaForces landed.
1873Colombia (Panama Region)Marines landed.
1874HawaiiSailors and marines landed.
1876MexicoArmy again occupies Matamoros.
1882British EgyptTroops land.
1885Colombia (Panama Region)Troops land in Colon and Panama City.
1885SamoaNaval force deployed.
1887HawaiiNavy gains right to build permanent naval base at Pearl Harbor.
1888HaitiTroops landed.
1888SamoaMarines landed.
1889SamoaClash with German naval forces.
1890ArgentinaUS sailors land in Buenos Aires.
1891ChileUS sailors land in the major port city of Valparaiso.
1891HaitiMarines land on US-claimed Navassa Island.
1893HawaiiMarines and other naval forces land and overthrow the monarchy. Read More | President Cleveland’s Message
1894NicaraguaMarines land at Bluefields on the eastern coast.
1894-1895ChinaMarines are stationed at Tientsin and Beijing. A naval ship takes up position at Newchwang.
1894-1896KoreaMarines land and remain in Seoul.
1895ColombiaMarines are sent to the town Bocas del Toro.
1896NicaraguaMarines land in the port of Corinto.
1898NicaraguaMarines land at the port city of San Juan del Sur.
1898GuamNaval forces seize Guam Island from Spain and the US holds the island permanently.
1898CubaNaval and land forces seize Cuba from Spain.
1898Puerto RicoNaval and land forces seize Puerto Rico from Spain and the US holds the island permanently.
1898PhilippinesNaval forces defeat the Spanish fleet and the US takes control of the country.
1899PhilippinesMilitary units are reinforced for extensive counter-insurgency operations.
1899SamoaNaval forces land
1899NicaraguaMarines land at the port city of Bluefields.
1900ChinaUS forces intervene in several cities.
1901Colombia/PanamaMarines land.
1902Colombia/PanamaUS forces land in Bocas de Toro
1903Colombia/PanamaWith US backing, a group in northern Colombia declares independence as the state of Panama
1903GuamNavy begins development in Apra Harbor of a permanent base installation.
1903HondurasMarines go ashore at Puerto Cortez.
1903Dominican RepublicMarines land in Santo Domingo.
1904-1905KoreaMarines land and stay in Seoul.
1906-1909CubaMarines land. The US builds a major naval base at Guantanamo Bay.
1907NicaraguaTroops seize major centers.
1907HondurasMarines land and take up garrison in cities of Trujillo, Ceiba, Puerto Cortez, San Pedro, Laguna and Choloma.
1908PanamaMarines land and carry out operations.
1910NicaraguaMarines land in Bluefields and Corinto.
1911HondurasMarines intervene.
1911-1941ChinaThe US builds up its military presence in the country to a force of 5000 troops and a fleet of 44 vessels patrolling China’s coast and rivers.
1912CubaUS sends army troops into combat in Havana.
1912PanamaArmy troops intervene.
1912HondurasMarines land.
1912-1933NicaraguaMarines intervene. A 20-year occupation of the country follows.
1913MexicoMarines land at Ciaris Estero.
1914Dominican RepublicNaval forces engage in battles in the city of Santo Domingo.
1914MexicoUS forces seize and occupy Mexico’s major port city of Veracrus from April through November.
1915-1916MexicoAn expeditionary force of the US Army under Gen. John J. Pershing crosses the Texas border and penetrates several hundred miles into Mexican territory. Eventually reinforced to over 11,000 officers and men.
1914-1934HaitiTroops land, aerial bombardment leading to a 19-year military occupation.
1916-1924Dominican RepublicMilitary intervention leading to 8-year occupation.
1917-1933CubaLanding of naval forces. Beginning of a 15-year occupation.
1918-1920PanamaTroops intervene, remain on “police duty” for over 2 years.
1918-1922RussiaNaval forces and army troops fight battles in several areas of the country during a five- year period.
1919YugoslaviaMarines intervene in Dalmatia.
1919HondurasMarines land.
1920GuatemalaTroops intervene.
1922TurkeyMarines engaged in operations in Smyrna (Izmir).
1922-1927ChinaNaval forces and troops deployed during 5-year period.
1924-1925HondurasTroops land twice in two-year period.
1925PanamaMarines land and engage in operations.
1927-1934ChinaMarines and naval forces stationed throughout the country.
1932El SalvadorNaval forces intervene.
1933CubaNaval forces deployed.
1934ChinaMarines land in Foochow.
1946IranTroops deployed in northern province.
1946-1949ChinaMajor US army presence of about 100,000 troops, fighting, training and advising local combatants.
1947-1949GreeceUS forces wage a 3-year counterinsurgency campaign.
1948ItalyHeavy CIA involvement in national elections.
1948-1954PhilippinesCommando operations, “secret” CIA war.
1950-1953KoreaMajor forces engaged in war in Korean peninsula.
1953IranCIA overthrows government of Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh. Read More
1954VietnamFinancial and materiel support for colonial French military operations, leads eventually to direct US military involvement.
1954GuatemalaCIA overthrows the government of President Jacobo Arbenz Guzman.
1958LebanonUS marines and army units totaling 14,000 land.
1958PanamaClashes between US forces in Canal Zone and local citizens.
1959HaitiMarines land.
1960CongoCIA-backed overthrow and assassination of Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba.
1960-1964VietnamGradual introduction of military advisors and special forces.
1961CubaCIA-backed Bay of Pigs invasion.
1962CubaNuclear threat and naval blockade.
1962LaosCIA-backed military coup.
1963EcuadorCIA backs military overthrow of President Jose Maria Valesco Ibarra.
1964PanamaClashes between US forces in Canal Zone and local citizens.
1964BrazilCIA-backed military coup overthrows the government of Joao Goulart and Gen. Castello Branco takes power. Read More
1965-1975VietnamLarge commitment of military forces, including air, naval and ground units numbering up to 500,000+ troops. Full-scale war, lasting for ten years.
1965IndonesiaCIA-backed army coup overthrows President Sukarno and brings Gen. Suharto to power.
1965CongoCIA backed military coup overthrows President Joseph Kasavubu and brings Joseph Mobutu to power.
1965Dominican Republic23,000 troops land.
1965-1973LaosBombing campaign begin, lasting eight years.
1966GhanaCIA-backed military coup ousts President Kwame Nkrumah.
1966-1967GuatemalaExtensive counter-insurgency operation.
1969-1975CambodiaCIA supports military coup against Prince Sihanouk, bringing Lon Nol to power. Intensive bombing for seven years along border with Vietnam.
1970OmanCounter-insurgency operation, including coordination with Iranian marine invasion.
1971-1973LaosInvasion by US and South Vietnames forces.
1973ChileCIA-backed military coup ousts government of President Salvador Allende. Gen. Augusto Pinochet comes to power.
1975CambodiaMarines land, engage in combat with government forces.
1976-1992AngolaMilitary and CIA operations.
1980IranSpecial operations units land in Iranian desert. Helicopter malfunction leads to aborting of planned raid.
1981LibyaNaval jets shoot down two Libyan jets in maneuvers over the Mediterranean.
1981-1992El SalvadorCIA and special forces begin a long counterinsurgency campaign.
1981-1990NicaraguaCIA directs exile “Contra” operations. US air units drop sea mines in harbors.
1982-1984LebanonMarines land and naval forces fire on local combatants.
1983GrenadaMilitary forces invade Grenada.
1983-1989HondurasLarge program of military assistance aimed at conflict in Nicaragua.
1984IranTwo Iranian jets shot down over the Persian Gulf.
1986LibyaUS aircraft bomb the cities of Tripoli and Benghazi, including direct strikes at the official residence of President Muamar al Qadaffi.
1986BoliviaSpecial Forces units engage in counter-insurgency.
1987-1988IranNaval forces block Iranian shipping. Civilian airliner shot down by missile cruiser.
1989LibyaNaval aircraft shoot down two Libyan jets over Gulf of Sidra.
1989PhilippinesCIA and Special Forces involved in counterinsurgency.
1989-1990Panama27,000 troops as well as naval and air power used to overthrow government of President Noriega.
1990LiberiaTroops deployed.
1990-1991IraqMajor military operation, including naval blockade, air strikes; large number of troops attack Iraqi forces in occupied Kuwait.
1991-2003IraqControl of Iraqi airspace in north and south of the country with periodic attacks on air and ground targets.
1991HaitiCIA-backed military coup ousts President Jean-Bertrand Aristide.
1992-1994SomaliaSpecial operations forces intervene.
1992-1994YugoslaviaMajor role in NATO blockade of Serbia and Montenegro.
1993-1995BosniaActive military involvement with air and ground forces.
1994-1996HaitiTroops depose military rulers and restore President Jean-Bertrand Aristide to office.
1995CroatiaKrajina Serb airfields attacked.
1996-1997Zaire (Congo)Marines involved in operations in eastern region of the country.
1997LiberiaTroops deployed.
1998SudanAir strikes destroy country’s major pharmaceutical plant.
1998AfghanistanAttack on targets in the country.
1998IraqFour days of intensive air and missile strikes.
1999YugoslaviaMajor involvement in NATO air strikes.
2001MacedoniaNATO troops shift and partially disarm Albanian rebels.
2001AfghanistanAir attacks and ground operations oust Taliban government and install a new regime.
2003IraqInvasion with large ground, air and naval forces ousts government of Saddam Hussein and establishes new government.
2003-presentIraqOccupation force of 150,000 troops in protracted counter-insurgency war
2004HaitiMarines land. CIA-backed forces overthrow President Jean-Bertrand Aristide.




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