Tales of a Muslim group of drug-fuelled stealth killers stir imaginations, but stray far from the true history of the Nizari Ismaili state.
Wednesday, 3 June 2020
By Erin Blakemore
Did a secretive order of assassins once covertly control the Middle East? It’s a tempting legend tailor-made for video games and Crusader-era chronicles. But the word “assassin” actually derives from a pejorative term for the Nizari Ismaili state, a secretive but short-lived group of medieval Shiite Muslims.
The Nizaris’ origins go back to the original schism in Islam in A.D. 632, when an argument over who should succeed the Prophet Muhammad as imam, or leader, split the Muslim community into Shiites and Sunnis. Then, in the ninth century, another disagreement over leadership arose among Shiites. Followers of a leader named Ismail broke off into their own sect, the Ismailis.
A medieval painting depicts the murder of am 11th-century Persian vizier (high-ranking official) by a member of the fedayeen, who carried out surgical strikes on the enemies of the Nizari Ismailis.
In 1095 an Ismaili prince named Nizar was in line to rule Cairo. When he was passed over in favour of his younger brother, Nizar briefly seized and ruled Alexandria but was executed. His followers fled to Persia, where they founded their own branch of Ismailism and established their own line of succession. Ismaili missionary Hassan-i-Sabbah became the Nizaris leader.
Painted as decadent heretics, the Nizari were hated by Shiite and Sunni Muslims alike. Outnumbered and surrounded by enemies on all sides, the embattled Nizari state did what it needed to survive. The sect created strongholds in the mountains of Persia and Syria and trained a select group of fighters called fedayeen, or “those who sacrifice themselves.” Fedayeen were known both for their devotion and their deadliness.
Traditional military tactics would have been useless for the outnumbered Nizari. Instead, the fedayeen carried out almost surgical strikes against selected political targets. Trained to infiltrate, kill, and submit to torture and death if necessary, the Nizari fedayeen gained an outsized reputation. Christian Crusaders, newly arrived in the Holy Land, also learned to fear the fedayeen, though the Nizari did form alliances with Crusaders in some situations. (Discover why the Crusades led to the rise and fall of the Templar.)
Historians believe that Western observers, who did not understand why the Nizari fought with guerrilla tactics, assumed they were under the thrall of some kind of drug like hashish. The Arabic word Hashishin, or “hashish users,” was applied pejoratively to the Nizaris by other Muslim groups, then adopted by Crusaders and westernised as Assassins. Eventually, the misnomer morphed into the modern English word for a paid murderer.
European travelers like Marco Polo spread fanciful stories about the Nizari Ismailis, including the story of Old Man of the Mountain, who would allegedly drug men to make them killers. A 15th century miniature depicts the Old Man of the Mountain meeting with his followers.