The Balfour Declaration is a short letter, all things considered. A document of just 67 words. It was sent by Arthur Balfour, Foreign Secretary to Lord Rothschild who at the time was seen as a representative of British Jewry.
“His Majesty’s Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people,” it reads, “and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object.” The caveat is added that no action shall be taken to “prejudice the civil and religious rights” of non-Jewish people living in Palestine.
Read in isolation it’s a letter that sounds rather inoffensive. With just a modicum of context it’s clear that – despite Theresa May’s desire for us all to feel proud of it – we as a nation should be deeply ashamed. Aside from the fact the document’s sentiment isn’t what happened in practice, Palestine wasn’t in the first place the British Government’s to offer or give.
In 1917, when the British Government – by almost all accounts an occupying force in Palestine – issued this promise, they did so as an empire giddy on power. The promise by a coloniser to create an ethnically controlled state on the land of those it oppresses isn’t something to be celebrated today. By 1948, the disastrous consequences of the declaration were already evident. Hailed as Israel’s War of Independence by its supporters, the Nakba “disaster” forced some 700,000 Palestinian from their homes during Israel’s formation. During the Deir Yassin Massacre in the same year, hundreds of Palestinians were killed in their homes. According to the United Nations, some five million Palestinian refugees are eligible for their services today, meanwhile Israel and Palestine look no closer to finding peace.
Next month will mark 100 years since this ill-fated declaration, and a celebratory dinner will be held in London to cement British and Israeli ties. In attendance at the dinner will be Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, Theresa May and Labour’s Emily Thornberry too.