Around 59,000 people die every year from rabies transmitted by dogs, with the poorer regions of the world worst affected, says a report by the Global Alliance for Rabies Control.
The report authors said more should be done to vaccinate dogs, particularly in low-income countries.
Vaccines for bite victims should also be more affordable and more widely available in these areas.
Rabies is a fatal viral infection which is almost 100% preventable.
The infection can infect all mammals, but domestic dogs cause more than 99% of all human deaths from rabies, the report said.
Most developed countries, including the UK, have eliminated rabies from their dog populations.
But in many developing countries, rabies is still present in domestic dogs and is often poorly controlled.