Tumeric / Curcumin: A Review of Its’ Effects on Human Health

turmeric-root-and-powder

By Susan J. Hewlings1,2,* and Douglas S. Kalman3,4

Abstract

Turmeric, a spice that has long been recognized for its medicinal properties, has received interest from both the medical/scientific world and from culinary enthusiasts, as it is the major source of the polyphenol curcumin. It aids in the management of oxidative and inflammatory conditions, metabolic syndrome, arthritis, anxiety, and hyperlipidemia. It may also help in the management of exercise-induced inflammation and muscle soreness, thus enhancing recovery and performance in active people. In addition, a relatively low dose of the complex can provide health benefits for people that do not have diagnosed health conditions. Most of these benefits can be attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Ingesting curcumin by itself does not lead to the associated health benefits due to its poor bioavailability, which appears to be primarily due to poor absorption, rapid metabolism, and rapid elimination. There are several components that can increase bioavailability. For example, piperine is the major active component of black pepper and, when combined in a complex with curcumin, has been shown to increase bioavailability by 2000%. Curcumin combined with enhancing agents provides multiple health benefits. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief overview of the plethora of research regarding the health benefits of curcumin.

Keywords: curcumin, turmeric, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, polyphenol

1. Introduction

Turmeric is a spice that has received much interest from both the medical/scientific worlds as well as from the culinary world. Turmeric is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant (Curcuma longa) of the ginger family []. The medicinal properties of turmeric, the source of curcumin, have been known for thousands of years; however, the ability to determine the exact mechanism(s) of action and to determine the bioactive components have only recently been investigated []. Curcumin (1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione), also called diferuloylmethane, is the main natural polyphenol found in the rhizome of Curcuma longa (turmeric) and in others Curcuma spp. []. Curcuma longa has been traditionally used in Asian countries as a medical herb due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory [], antimutagenic, antimicrobial [,], and anticancer properties [,].

Curcumin, a polyphenol, has been shown to target multiple signaling molecules while also demonstrating activity at the cellular level, which has helped to support its multiple health benefits []. It has been shown to benefit inflammatory conditions [], metabolic syndrome [], pain [], and to help in the management of inflammatory and degenerative eye conditions [,]. In addition, it has been shown to benefit the kidneys []. While there appear to be countless therapeutic benefits to curcumin supplementation, most of these benefits are due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects [,]. Despite its reported benefits via inflammatory and antioxidant mechanisms, one of the major problems with ingesting curcumin by itself is its poor bioavailability [], which appears to be primarily due to poor absorption, rapid metabolism, and rapid elimination. Several agents have been tested to improve curcumin’s bioavailability by addressing these various mechanisms. Most of them have been developed to block the metabolic pathway of curcumin in order to increase its bioavailability. For example, piperine, a known bioavailability enhancer, is the major active component of black pepper [] and is associated with an increase of 2000% in the bioavailability of curcumin []. Therefore, the issue of poor bioavailability appears to be resolved by adding agents such as piperine that enhance bioavailability, thus creating a curcumin complex.

Curcumin is being recognized and used worldwide in many different forms for multiple potential health benefits. For example, in India, turmeric—containing curcumin—has been used in curries; in Japan, it is served in tea; in Thailand, it is used in cosmetics; in China, it is used as a colorant; in Korea, it is served in drinks; in Malaysia, it is used as an antiseptic; in Pakistan, it is used as an anti-inflammatory agent; and in the United States, it is used in mustard sauce, cheese, butter, and chips, as a preservative and a coloring agent, in addition to capsules and powder forms. Curcumin is available in several forms including capsules, tablets, ointments, energy drinks, soaps, and cosmetics []. Curcuminoids have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as “Generally Recognized As Safe” (GRAS) [], and good tolerability and safety profiles have been shown by clinical trials, even at doses between 4000 and 8000 mg/day [] and of doses up to 12,000 mg/day of 95% concentration of three curcuminoids: curcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, and demethoxycurcumin [].

It is the purpose of this review to provide a brief overview of the plethora of research regarding the potential health benefits of curcumin. Due to the extent of the literature, we have chosen to focus on the benefits associated with some common health conditions and on benefits in healthy people rather than to review the extensive literature related to cancer and other disease states. For a comprehensive review of curcumin’s effects on cancer, please see the paper by Kunnumakkara et al. 2017 [].

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