Burqa bans, headscarves and veils: a timeline of legislation in the west

Hijab in the West

Women protest outside the French embassy in London. Last summer France’s PM defended municipal bans on burkini swimwear. Photograph: Alamy Stock Photo. The Muslim Times has the best collection on Hijab and modest dressing. Additionally, We also have the best collection to promote the right balance between religious zeal and secularism in every country of the world

Source: Guardian

By Matthew Weaver, who received the digital editorial individual award at the AOP awards 2010. Before joining the Guardian website in 2001 he was news editor of the architecture magazine Building Design. You can follow him on Twitter @matthew_weaver

European states have moved over the years to outlaw Muslim headwear in public

The movement to limit women wearing headscarves and Muslim veils, such as the burqa and niqab, has been growing in Europe for more than a decade. Now the European court of justice, the EU’s highest court, has ruled that employers can ban staff from wearing headscarves, its first decision on the issue of employees wearing visible religious symbols at work.

24 September 2003

Germany’s federal constitutional court rules in favour of an Afghan-born teacher who wants to wear an Islamic scarf to school. But it says states can change their laws locally if they want to. Half of Germany’s regions go on to ban teachers from wearing headscarves.

3 February 2004

France’s national assembly begins debating a bill to ban religious symbols, including Muslim headscarves, Jewish skullcaps and large Christian crosses, from schools.

31 March 2010

A key committee in Belgium votes to implement the first European ban against wearing the burqa and niqab in public. “I am proud that Belgium would be the first country in Europe which dares to legislate on this sensitive matter,” says the centre-right MP Denis Ducarme. But it is the French government that imposes the first ban. A law banning the full-face veil does not come into effect in Belgium until July 2011, three months after the French ban.

11 April 2011

Under a decree by the French prime minister, François Fillon, women are banned from wearing the niqab in any public place. Under the first ban of its kind in Europe, face veils are outlawed virtually anywhere outside women’s homes, except when worshipping in a religious place or travelling as a passenger in a car.

1 July 2014

The European court of human rights upholds France’s burqa ban. The judges say preservation of a certain idea of “living together” is the “legitimate aim” of the French authorities.

22 May 2015

The Dutch cabinet approves a partial ban on face-covering Islamic veils on public transport and in public areas. The ban does not apply to wearing the burqa or the niqab on the street, except when there are specific security reasons.

18 January 2016

The former UK prime minister David Cameron says he will back institutions with “sensible rules” over Muslims wearing full-face veils, but rules out a full public ban.

“In our country people should be free to wear what they like,” Cameron says, but adds:

When you are coming into contact either with different institutions or, for instance, you are in court, or you need to see someone’s face at the border, then I would always back the authorities or the institutions that have put in place proper and sensible rules.

18 August 2016

France’s prime minister, Manuel Valls, defends municipal bans on body covering burkini swimwear designed for Muslim women after mayors impose burkini bans in several seaside towns including Cannes, Villeneuve-Loubet, and Sisc on the island of Corsica.

6 December 2016

The German chancellor, Angela Merkel, endorses a partial ban on the burqa and the niqab. “The full facial veil is inappropriate and should be banned wherever it is legally possible,” she says.

30 January 2017

Austria’s ruling coalition agrees to prohibit full-face veils such as the burqa and niqab in courts and schools. It also pledges to investigate banning headscarves for women employed in public services, in a move designed to hold the ruling coalition together by placating the anti-immigration Freedom party.

14 March 2017

In its first decision on the headscarf issue the European court of justice rules that employers can bar staff from wearing visible religious symbols. But the court also rules that customers cannot simply demand that workers remove headscarves if the company has no policy barring religious symbols.

31 May 2018

The Danish parliament votes to ban garments that cover the face, including Islamic veils such as the niqab or burqa. The bill was presented by the ruling centre-right coalition.

Reference

11 replies

  1. Reblogged this on Progressive Islam. and commented:
    God has changed the West to create justice for all people— no one provoke his belief or religion in public place—

    God command Muslim to follow the law of the land as s good Muslim. Those Muslim who reject the law of the land are rebellion, God will condemn them and maybd will punish them.

    I urge all Islamuc clerics and Scholars to advice women to obey the law of the land, God will forgive you, God is the most forgiving.

    I love you all ❤️

    • The Motto of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama’at is ‘Love for All and Hatred for None’. The Khalifa of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama’at says ‘Love for your Homeland / Country of Refuge is part of your Faith. (would be nice for Somi to appreciate). – Women to obey the law of the land? Of course they do. There is no law against decent dress. Even the Mother of Jesus used to wear Hijab.

  2. A reminder ! Rafiq—Love for all and hatred for none—This is a cool motto. This motto is the same as God wisdom—
    God say : love all people even your enemy, pray for them.

    If you are really a good Ahmadiyya follower you should not hate me, you should not erase my comment even against your belief— Ahmadiyya’s belief.

    If you still erase my comment it means you destroy the motto Ahmadiyyah— please do not do it anymore, repent to God God is Mist forgiving.

    I love all ❤️

    • My dear Somi, I may erase your comments without any hate what-so-ever, just to protect fellow readers from your repetitions. No offense meant. Love for All Hatred for None.

  3. The number of Muslims is growing in all western countries because of never ending immigration, high birth rate and conversion. They have their own culture, languages and faith.

    God has created diverse human beings to live in this tiny global village of one family. Creation by its very nature is diverse with different species, different communities, different cultures and languages. These differences represent the beauty and wonder but diversity is sometimes not fully appreciated, resulting in all sorts of clashes. The British society and Establishment must learn to respect and accommodate others, as if in a family.

    Multiculturalism is not about integration but about cultural plurality. It is not about separation but about respect and the deepening awareness of Unity in Diversity. Each culture will maintain its own intrinsic value and at the same time would be expected to contribute to the benefit of the whole society. Multiculturalism can accommodate diversity of all kinds – cultural, philosophical and religious – so that we can create a world without conflict and strife. Britain can assume the role of accommodation and concern for all peoples, for our planet and indeed for our survival. Multiculturalism is even more important and crucial after 9/11 and 7/7. Muslim youths are also likely to feel alienated by a focus on shared Brutishness, rather than multicultural diversity. Rather than promoting a single British “us” teaching should acknowledge that “us” can be diverse and plural. Children should be encouraged to explore differences in appearance, history and religion to reduce social and educational fears.

    A Muslim is a citizen of this tiny global village. The whole world belongs to Muslims. Muslims are part and parcel of the European society. The number of Muslims is on the increase because of never ending immigration, high birth rate and conversion. Now the elected Mayor of London is a Pakistani Muslim and tomorrow the elected British PM would be a Pakistani Muslim.

    People are people, regardless of where they were born, what colour their skin is, or whatever religion. All deserve respect. Tolerance in Sweden/Britain is an illusion. The problem isn’t immigrants not adapting to British culture, it’s Brits showing much disrespect and scorn to those who are of any immigrant background. even if an immigrant was well versed in English, knew the customs etc. would they still get employment? No. Would Brits treat them as a decent human? No. So why would they want to assimilate into a culture that is constantly tearing them down? Multiculturalism is not about integration but about cultural plurality. It is not about separation but about respect and the deepening awareness of Unity in Diversity.
    Each culture will maintain its own intrinsic value and at the same time would be expected to contribute to the benefit of the whole society.

    A vast majority of people in this world just want to live their lives with their families and friends, and don’t give a hoot about what other people do, as long as they can go on with their families and friends. I find it almost impossible to believe that most Muslims want to kill people who don’t share their views. The matter at hand is how to change the mind-set of people so a higher percentage does not turn to violence. One should not lump all individuals of any particular Faith in with the violent actions of a few misguided individuals who USE Religion to justify their violent actions. Every now and then a Muslim kills in the US and some people jump on ALL Muslims, as though WHITES, CHRISTIANS or otherwise, do not kill. They forget that non-Muslim killing far outnumbers Muslim killing in the US. They call for the expulsion of Muslims. The BEST SOLUTION would be for all FOREIGNERS to go back to their roots and return the country to the original AMERICAN NATIVES. Is this not a FAIR PROPOSAL? LOL! You white Christians have destroyed the Native Americans and it is only fair and right that YOU be destroyed by other communities.

    A civilisation is measured not by the rights it grants its majority but the privileges it allows its minorities. Muslim families are as entitled as any other religious group to schools that nurture their children’s faith. Muslim pupils should be educated in Muslim schools because the current system is marginalising them. Teaching Muslim children in a Muslim school would remove the “problem of them being exposed” to values that conflict with Islamic faith. Muslim pupils are disadvantaged and marginalised in the city’s state schools because the cultural heritage of the curriculum is “European and Christian”.

    No one has any problem when: Jews keep beards and wear their traditional caps Christian priests and nuns wear their religious outfits Buddhist monks wear orange robes Sikhs keep beards and wear turbans Indian aunties wear Sarees (cross streets and hang out in Wal-Mart) Yeah but if any Muslim male keeps beard or if any Muslim girl wears hijab then everyone has problem. It’s Freedom when you go naked but it’s extremism when you wear hijab – just plain hypocrisy! Looking at the case of France, a major secular nation, I believe it is also not allowing women freedom by not letting her to wear her choice of clothing as it supposedly “clashes with French secular values”.

    Stop treating foreigners like garbage and they will stop ruining your precious country. Why did you let them in in the first place if you didn’t want them here? They left everything in their countries because of your promises. Are you so anxious to please that you can’t say “no”? I would love to see you go to a foreign land where you don’t have any friends, you don’t even know anyone and you don’t speak the language, and start from scratch.

    Muslim community in all western countries need Masajid, state funded Muslim schools, Halal meat, sharia laws, time off for Friday afternoon prayers in the Masjid, two religious holidays per year and Muslim cemeteries. West must learn to respect and tolerate those who are different. Don’t these hypocrites idiots know what their ancestors did to Native American Indians they slaughtered 150 millions of Native American Indians! and also do they know that Great Britain invaded 80% countries around the world? They should call them terrorist first and as well call their ancestors terrorist! British did the same to Native American Indians and sadly they still treat Native American Indians badly! So Americans Indians know how you Muslims feel! They stolen Indian land and killed 150 millions of Indians the British did! They were forced to go to the white man’s school and learn the
    language, culture and faith of the white man. Inspite of that, they are still the underdogs of the American society.
    IA
    http://www.londonschoolofislamics.org.uk

  4. Iftikhar ahmedwrite:—-
    Muslim community in all western countries need Masajid, state funded Muslim schools, Halal meat, sharia laws, time off for Friday afternoon prayers in the Masjid, two religious holidays per year and Muslim cemeteries. West must learn to respect and tolerate those who are different——

    My respond to you Iftikhar—My parents advice:

    One day if you live in your friend house, respect his culture or tradition in order he can respect you and welcome you in his house.

    Do not try to change his tradition or do not try to provoke your tradition or religion in his house.

    But if you cannot adapt his tradition you better find other house or friend.

    All love ❤️

  5. IFTIKHAR WROTE:
    God has created diverse human beings to live in this tiny global village of one family. Creation by its very nature is diverse with different species, different communities, different cultures and languages. These differences represent the beauty and wonder but diversity is sometimes not fully appreciated, resulting in all sorts of clashes. The British society and Establishment must learn to respect and accommodate others, as if in a family.//

    My comment. This is very nice thought, but Britist siciety are not all alike, some of them think that Muslim will take their country or Muslim will destroy their culture—Muslim when become mojority want to create Islamic state.

    Mojority Muslim who live in Christian countries want to implement Islamic law or syariah.

    So as long as the immigrant Muslim do not stop attempting to provoke Islamic thing in public will create backlash or counteroffensive from islamophobia.
    Thus is very dangerous for Immigrant Muslim.

    My advise:
    As we know that Most Chridtian countries are lovely and peaceful . Chrustian countries welcome Muslim immigrant to get better life.

    Ahmadiyyah should lead Muslim immigrant how to thank to Host countries by obeying the law of land and respect its tradition and religion, and do not try to provoke its tradition and religion. Live in peace do your teligion at home, mosque—do not on the street or public place.

    All love ❤️

    • The majority Muslims in Western Countries are law abiding citizens and are quite happy with the local laws of separation of state and religion. It is not a majority that wishes to change to Islamic Laws and ‘Islamic State’. Ahmadiyyah Muslim Jama’at teaches ‘Love for your country is part of your faith’

  6. Correct me if I am wrong Rafiq.
    What I see that Ahmafiyyah support the minority extremist who want to promote Islam in publict or provoke Islamophobia by creating Halal Bank, halal grocery, syariah dress show, syariah restaurant, shariah insurance etc etc c in christian countries. This behavior are rejected by most Christian. Progressive Muslim also reject this kind of provocative in the name of tolerant and freedom of expression ect.

    Ahmadiyyah shoud not support the extremist Islamic ideology-/ should support Progressive Muslim who reject the extremist totally.

    All love ❤️

    • First of all do not mix-up ‘Ahmadiyya’ with the views in these comments of Rafiq. Rafiq’s views are often personal. For Ahmadiyya ‘official views’ please go to the official channels, http://www.mta.tv, http://www.alislam.org. In The Muslim Times also we often give information of what is going on, we do not always ‘strongly support it’. That having said personally speaking I do not share your opposition to Islamic Banks and Halal Restaurant. No body forces any body to use them or go there. It is freedom. Absolutely no harm. Only Somi and may be a few extremists Ku Klux Klan type of guys will feel offended – and whatever you do you can not please Ku Klux Klan types (and Somi it seems). Now that your view has been expressed many times and mine too we may close this discussion for a while (erase?)

  7. Interesting discussion. But I want to point out the following:
    In Islamic Hijab the covering of face is not prescribed. So why get so angry. Misinterpretations and misrepresentations of some orthodox Muslim Mullahs is not Islam. Islam is in the Holy Quran. Please quote the verse of the Quran where face cover is prescribed? Take a deep breath and relax. Then put a veil on your face and walk a few steps inside your house. I don’t want you to get hurt!!!

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