Transgender Pakistani wins legal victories but fight goes on

NYtimes.com 2017/08/19

LAHORE, Pakistan — Pakistan’s Parliament is poised to pass the nation’s first law recognizing transgender people as equal citizens and laying out penalties for discrimination and violence against them, a surprising victory for activists in a country with deeply conservative social views.

The Transgender Persons Protection of Rights bill, which community members and activists say has the support of all the major political parties, is expected to pass easily in Parliament in the coming weeks.

“We are overwhelmed by how supportive the state has been to this law — we have so much hope,” said Mehlab Jameel, 25, an anthropologist who identifies as a transgender person of feminine expression and helped draft the bill.

The draft law gives intersex people, eunuchs, transgender men and women and anyone whose gender identity or expression “differs from the social norms and cultural expectations based on the sex they were assigned at the time of their birth” the right to identify as a transgender person and enjoy the same rights as other men and women in Pakistan.

The action in Parliament follows a series of victories for the country’s transgender population.

Last year, a group of Pakistani clerics issued a religious edict saying that transgender people with “visible signs” of male or female attributes could marry someone of the opposite sex. In 2012, the Supreme Court declared equal rights for transgender citizens, including the right to inherit property and equal opportunity in education and employment, and the year before, they were given the right to vote.

This year, Pakistan counted transgender people in its national census for the first time. Then in June, the government issued its first passports with a transgender category — a milestone in the struggle against discrimination.

But to many transgender Pakistanis, the advances still fall short of what is really needed: changing the attitudes of a mainstream society that shuns and abuses them, often forcing them into begging or prostitution to earn a living.

Nadeem Kashish, 35, a transgender woman who is the leader of Pakistan’s She-Male Association for Fundamental Rights, said she had endured ridicule and violence as an effeminate child and the humiliation of performing as an oddity in a circus as a teenager. As a young adult, she tried to live her life as a man, and had a son with a woman who died in childbirth, before finally making peace with herself as a transgender woman.

Ms. Kashish lived for years in a community of “khawaja siras,” an umbrella term dating back centuries to the Mughal era and denoting a third sex that includes cross-dressers, eunuchs and intersex people, as well as transgender women and men.

Photo

A Pakistani transgender woman preparing her dress ahead of the Eid al-Fitr festival in Peshawar last year. Credit a Majeed/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

Shunned by their families and subjected to systemic violence and discrimination in society, khawaja siras in Pakistan, and across most of South Asia, have for decades lived in these adoptive families, led by a mother figure, or guru, who provides shelter and protection in exchange for a percentage of the income earned by her followers, called chehlas, mainly from sex work, dancing or begging.

Now working as a makeup artist at a major television news network, Ms. Kashish also runs a small shelter out of her home in Islamabad for transgender people who have been shunned by their families but do not want to be part of the khawaja sira culture, which many see as exploitative of young transgender people with no place else to turn.

Ms. Kashish said that her own guru took advantage of her financially and that she now views these segregated communities as “the biggest curse” on the lives of Pakistan’s transgender people.

While a majority of transgender people in the country still identify as khawaja siras, many young transgender men and women, emboldened by new rights and a connection to a global identity, are rejecting the culture, saying it exploits disoriented young people instead of providing the promised safety net.

Qasim Iqbal, the executive director of trans-rights group Naz Pakistan, said, “While the guru system has its benefits and definitely provides protection, some young educated people — especially those with access to social media, who are working closely with rights groups and are more aware of their own rights — they are starting to identify less with the khawaja sira culture and more with a global trans-identity.”

Perhaps no one better represents the deepening schism between the traditional khawaja sira culture and a new wave of those with transgender identity than Kami Sid, 27, who rose to fame last year after a fashion shoot as Pakistan’s first transgender model.

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Kami Sid, 27, who rose to fame last year after a fashion shoot as Pakistan’s first transgender model. Credit Haseeb Siddiqui

“A third gender or sex means you are on the sidelines, you are something extra,” said Ms. Sid, who began transitioning to becoming a woman about five years ago. “I am a woman. I want to be part of the mainstream. I reject any culture that says I am a third something.”

The transgender population in Pakistan finds some semblance of tolerance because of historical and cultural perceptions, and because the group is “a minority that doesn’t threaten anyone,” said Nadeem F. Paracha, a popular cultural critic and senior columnist for the Dawn Newspaper in Pakistan.

“For centuries, from the time of the Mughal empire, they have been perceived as having been born with physical or sexual ambiguities, and so they are considered special,” Mr. Paracha said. “They have this status as God’s chosen people, and that is where the acceptability stems from: that God made them this way, and so the rest of us have to accept them. And in fact, in the South Asian imagination, there is this idea that they have powers to bless and curse people, which is why you see people from this community at wedding ceremonies or when children are born.”

He added: “That it’s O.K. to be transgender is something that is deeply ingrained in the cultural imagination of South Asian people. So even conservative people who might disapprove of their lifestyle or their way of dressing just stay silent or look the other way when it comes to things like laws to protect them. They’ve always just been a part of society.”

Despite gaining some legal recognition in recent years, transgender people still face the widespread threat of discrimination and violence.

Last year, in an episode that received national attention, a young transgender activist who used the name Alisha died after being shot six times and then being denied treatment at a hospital in the northwestern city of Peshawar.

Photo

Photos of transgender Pakistanis spread out on the ground of an apartment shared by a group of dancers in Rawalpindi. Male and female roles are clearly defined in Pakistan, and transgender residents often face harassment and abuse. Credit Muhammed Muheisen/Associated Press

Farzana Jan, a friend of Alisha’s and the head of the Trans Action Alliance, said she had stood outside the emergency room at a 1,750-bed hospital while doctors debated for hours whether Alisha should be treated in the male or female wards. Men at the hospital asked Ms. Jan to come dance at a party. Many asked whether Alisha’s blood was H.I.V. positive.

Ms. Jan, who is in her late 30s and received Pakistan’s first transgender passport, comes from the northwestern town of Mardan and identifies as intersex. As a young girl, she found some happiness at home when her mother allowed her to wear dresses and nail polish, she said. But at school, her teachers forced her to dance in the center of the classroom while the other children clapped and made fun of her.

“From the moment I was born, I was a showpiece,” she said in a telephone interview from Peshawar. “It made me very sad.”

When she was 10, Ms. Jan ran away from Mardan and joined Peshawar’s khawaja sira community, beginning a long career as a dancer.

“I have been groped and raped at parties,” she said. “Men have pulled guns on me and made me do unimaginable things. That’s been my life, but thank God, I don’t have to do that anymore.”

Last October, Ms. Jameel, the anthropologist, barely escaped being raped by a police officer who had driven her into the woods in Pakistan’s capital, Islamabad, on the pretext of giving her a ride home on his motorcycle.

“I jumped off the bike and started running while he came after me swearing and screaming that he would shoot me,” Jameel recalled. “But as traumatizing as that experience might seem, it’s a very common thing in our lives — that even a policeman thinks we are fair game.”

Ms. Jameel added: “So after this bill passes, what the government really needs to do is start a campaign to sensitize the masses, government officials, policemen, everyone. That’s the real challenge.”

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