The Last Sermon of the Prophet Muhammad: The Beginning of Universal Brotherhood- Charter for Humanity

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Epigraph: O mankind, We have created you from a male and a female; and We have made you into tribes and sub-tribes that you may recognize one another. Verily, the most honourable among you, in the sight of Allah, is he who is the most righteous among you. Surely, Allah is All-knowing, All-Aware.  (Al Quran 49:14)

Source: Arab News

Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) delivered his last sermon (Khutbah) on the ninth of Dhul Hijjah (12th and last month of the Islamic year), 10 years after Hijrah (migration from Makkah to Madinah) in the Uranah Valley of mount Arafat. His words were quite clear and concise and were directed to the entire humanity.

After praising, and thanking Allah he said:

O People, lend me an attentive ear, for I know not whether after this year, I shall ever be amongst you again. Therefore listen to what I am saying to you very carefully and take these words to those who could not be present here today.

O people, just as you regard this month, this day, this city as Sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you. Remember that you will indeed meet your Lord, and that He will indeed reckon your deeds. Allah has forbidden you to take usury (interest), therefore all interest obligation shall henceforth be waived. Your capital, however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer any inequity. Allah has Judged that there shall be no interest and that all the interest due to Abbas ibn Abd Al-Muttalib (Prophet’s uncle) shall henceforth be waived…

Beware of Satan, for the safety of your religion. He has lost all hope that he will ever be able to lead you astray in big things, so beware of following him in small things.

O people, it is true that you have certain rights with regard to your women, but they also have rights over you. Remember that you have taken them as your wives only under Allah’s trust and with His permission. If they abide by your right then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Do treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers. And it is your right that they do not make friends with any one of whom you do not approve, as well as never to be unchaste.

O people, listen to me in earnest, worship Allah, say your five daily prayers (Salah), fast during the month of Ramadan, and give your wealth in Zakat. Perform Hajj if you can afford to.

All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over black nor a black has any superiority over white except bypiety (taqwa) and good action. Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim which belongs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly. Do not, therefore, do injustice to yourselves.

Remember, one day you will appear before Allah and answer your deeds. So beware, do not stray from the path of righteousness after I am gone.

O people, no prophet or apostle will come after me and no new faith will be born.

Reason well, therefore, O people, and understand words which I convey to you. I leave behind me two things, the Qu’ran and my example, the Sunnah and if you follow these you will never go astray.

All those who listen to me shall pass on my words to others and those to others again; and may the last ones understand my words better than those who listen to me directly. Be my witness, O Allah, that I have conveyed your message to your people.

(Reference: See Al-Bukhari, Hadith 1623, 1626, 6361) Sahih of Imam Muslim also refers to this sermon in Hadith number 98. Imam al-Tirmidhi has mentioned this sermon in Hadith nos. 1628, 2046, 2085. Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal has given us the longest and perhaps the most complete version of this sermon in his Masnud, Hadith no. 19774.)


2 replies

  1. ‘Bismillah hir Rahman nir Raheem.’

    To: Darul Ihsan Islamic Services Centre (Fatwa Dept.)
    98 Overport Drive, Durban, South Africa
    Att. Moulana Muhammad Ballim; Mufti Shafiq Jakhura; Mufti M.D. Mangera

    John the Baptist – husband of Mary father of Jesus Christ He Who taught by the Pen –taught man what he knew not A researcher’s ink is more holy than the blood of a martyr What you swear on:
    ‘Esa the son of Maryam was divinely conceived
    with no father.’

    You echo what is exactly the creed of Christianity. If Jesus was divinely conceived,
    ipso facto, he is Divine! That he was a son, divinely conceived with no earthly father,
    ipso facto, he is Son of God – the Divine Being! Is not yours akin to the Pope’s belief?

    The Holy Prophet was summoned to defend Islam against this very Christian creed.
    If Islam rejects Jesus as the Son of God it was the onus of the Prophet to prove how
    (a) he was conceived and (b) who was his earthly father. On this demand, in the
    Debate, Allah revealed verse 3: 59.

    ‘Surely, the likeness of Jesus, in the eyes of Allah, is as Adam’s likeness. He (God) created him (Jesus) from turab(dust); then said He unto him (Jesus) Be, and he was.’ 3: 59
    Their instant question:
    ‘Who was his (Jesus’) father?’
    The Holy Prophet’s reply:
    ‘Don’t you know that no son is born but has the likeness to his father in form and in appearance?’ ‘Yes.’
    Then he asked:
    ‘Don’t you know that Jesus was conceived by a woman just as how every other woman conceives a child? ‘Yes.’

    The Najran Deputation
    They were confounded by the truth of revelation 3:59 with which the Prophet argued
    in proving that Allah was Creator of Jesus; He created Jesus from turab; in the human
    mould of Adam. Where? Created implies lifeless turab evolved into nutfah. This
    happens only in the backbone of the father of the life 86: 7. No where else!
    Duplicating his father’s DNA the son becomes a replica of his father in form and appearance. God created Jesus of, by and in his father. After his creation, ‘then said He (God) unto him (Jesus), Be, and he was.’ ‘So, Mary conceived him’; as every other woman conceives a child.
    Man and Jinn cannot construct a verse like 3: 59 nor, combined, can they refute its truth that Jesus is the son of John the Baptist.
    2. Creation is before conception. Allah first created Jesus from turab in the backbone of his father. Only in the organs of a man can turab (lifeless dust) evolve into a living cell.
    No where else on earth or in heaven. From inception (turab) to creation (nutfah) Mary was not involved. After his creation,‘then (thumma) God said unto him’ (the already created life) ‘kun fa yakoon’; that is, for the transplant of the seedling from the loins of the father into the womb of Mary’s nursery for Jesus to become whom he became. ‘So she (Mary) conceived him (Jesus)’. As how all women conceives (Qur’an/Prophet’s word) not by divine invitro or divine fiat or divine decree as you swear upon.

    Likeness to his father in form & appearance:
    John was a Jew. Jesus was ‘a Jew indeed in whom there is no guile’. Jesus claimed, ‘I and my father are one’. Repeating, ‘He is in me and I am in him’. Jesus, from head to toe, was the replica of John. So alike they were even closest disciples, Herod, men and women folks mistook one for the other! Baptizing Jesus, John said, ‘this is my beloved son in whom I am well pleased.’ Repeating the very words at his Transfiguration!
    Your fatwa of ‘kufr’:
    ‘Any person who denies that Jesus, son of Mary, was Divinely conceived with no father is considered a disbeliever and out of the fold of Islam.’
    What you mean:
    The Holy Prophet Muhammad is a Veritable Kafir. Hazur is out of the fold of Islam.
    Allah is a Kafir. The Holy Quran is kufr. Islam is kufr! A preposterous blasphemy!
    End-result of the debate:
    Revelation 3: 59 as interpreted by the Holy Prophet convinced the Najran Deputation
    that Jesus was son of an earthly human father whom he resembled in form and in appearance but they were unwilling to submit to Islam. Invited to a prayer contest by revelation 3: 61 they declined and opted to pay jizya.

    The Mubahala/prayer contest:
    You, Muhammad Ballim, Shafiq Jakhura & M.D. Mangera on behalf of Darul Ihsan of Durban, South Africa claim, like the Christian Najran Deputation, that Jesus, son of
    Mary was Divinely conceived with no father and that any person who denies this is a kafir and out of the fold of Islam.
    I, Mohamed Mirza testify that verse 3: 59 of the Holy Qur’an as interpreted by the
    Holy Prophet in his debate against the Christian Najran Deputation reveals that John the
    Baptist is the human father of Jesus Christ son of Mary. This TRUTH is written in plain language many where in the Holy Qur’an and in the Holy Bible.
    Standing in the stead of the Holy Prophet, I invite the three of you to a debate and a
    prayer contest in terms of verse 3: 61. In your team of sixty men I allow you the right
    to include the head of every Sect of Islam, the Grand Ayatolla of Iran, the Grand Mufti
    of Egypt, the Spiritual Head of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, His Holiness the Rabwa Ahmaddi Khalifatul Masih, the Amir of the Lahore Ahmadi, His Holiness the Pope of Vatican, the Archbishop of the Anglican Diocese. I allow you the right to use any book and as many Doctors of Law you choose. I would stand alone against all.
    I do so In the Name of Allah. So help me Allah. Mohamed Raff Mirza
    To: Darul Ihsan Services Centre – Fatwa Dept.
    98 Overport Drive Durban, South Africa
    Att. Moulana Muhammad Ballim; Mufti Shafiq Jakhura; Mufti M.D.Mangera
    John the Baptist husband of Mary father of Jesus
    Your fatwa of ‘kufr’:
    ‘the Quraan Shareef clearly mentions Esa (A.S.) as the son of Maryam.
    Any person who denies this to mean that Esa (A.S.) was divinely conceived without a father is a kafir out of the fold of Islam.’
    What a preposterous blasphemy masters program their slaves against Allah! Which of
    the three words in ‘son of Mary’ means divine conception or birth without a father?
    In the text of 3: 45
    ‘O Mariam, Allah gives thee glad tidings of a kalimat from Him:
    his name (ismuhu) is Al-Masih, Isa, son of Mariam, held in honor in this world and in the hereafter and of those nearest to Allah.’
    ‘his name is’
    Al- Masih the surname of Jesus(call him by his father 33: 5)
    Isa the personal name of Jesus
    Al-Masih Isa is the son of Mary 4: 171
    That Jesus’ surname is Al-Masih and he is son of Mariam is not (a) his father Al-Masih
    and (b) his mother Mariam the legal wedded wife of Al-Masih?
    Who were of those nearest to Allah through whom Jesus was born? Who, at the time,
    were nearer than Imran & Hannah; Zachariah & Elizabeth; John & Mariam?
    Man and Jinn cannot construct a verse like 3: 45 and combine they cannot refute its
    truth that John was the husband of Mary and father of Jesus.
    Meaning of the word ‘son’:
    Every dictionary – a male child of his father and mother.
    Old Testament – ‘and God said, Sarah thy wife shall bare thee a son.’ Gen. 17: 19
    New Testament – ‘the angel said, thy wife Elizabeth shall bear thee a son’ L. 1: 13
    Holy Qur’an – Originator of the heavens and the earth, how can He have a son when He has no Consort’?(6: 101)
    ‘Lord, how can I have a son and my wife is barren’? 3: 40‘Lord, how can I have a son when no man has touched me’? 3: 47
    ‘Jesus son of Mary’:
    Jesus was not Mary’s son by adoption. Her womb was not a vessel into which God or
    His Spirit or His Kun entered and through which exited. If so, the universe would have evaporated 19: 90. ‘son of’ means Mary’s egg was mated. A human Jesus is the proof that Mary’s egg was mated by the sperm of a man resulting in an alaq that took root in Mary’s womb, then, fed off her body, grew, into an foetus. If not, why when birthing Mary’s bitter cries were ‘would that I had died ere this, would that I had been a thing unknown and lost in oblivion’ 19: 23. Thanks to the Qur’an we come to know this.
    ‘son of man’ & ‘son of Mary’:
    In the Bible ‘son of man’; in the Qur’an ‘son of Mary’ is to Jesus as a shadow is to its body. Singly or together the meaning is, Jesus is by the sperm of a man and the egg of Mary. Correctly/precisely no man can disprove.Son of Mary is telling loud and clear the truth that Jesus is the son of John. To Allah all praise belongs. Mohamed Raff Mirza.

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