Al-Hafiz Yunus Omotayo, Nigeria
In the contemporary world, there appears to be no other religious concept as grossly controversial, misconceived, distorted and misapplied as the subject of Jihad in Islam. As a result, the issues relating to the precept and practice of Jihad and their aggregate impacts on human experience, world affairs and history have continued to occupy a central position in the contemporary socio-religious and political discourse across the various academic and media circles.
Essentially, Islam’s theological, jurisprudential and ideological concept of Jihad should have been very clear and simple to grasp. It all begins with the monotheistic belief about God which maintains that the kingdom of heavens and earth belongs to Allah.  This premise, therefore, establishes for Islam its idealistic agenda of ensuring that, just as it is in heaven, the Word and Order of Allah must as well rule supreme in the world through the agency of mankind, whom the Divine Will appointed as the vicegerent of Allah on earth. Thus, any struggle [jihad] engaged in towards the realization of this supreme agenda is therefore termed in the Islamic theology as ‘Jihad fee sabeel Allah’ i.e. struggle in the way of establishing the supremacy of the Word and Order of Allah in human life and world.
Unfortunately, however, as lucid and simple as this subject appears, it is but disheartening, noting how it is being made a victim of blatant and appalling misconceptions and misapplications by the contemporary modern world. No doubt, from the various cases of the political rebellions and civil wars being championed by the radical extremist Islamists in the Muslim populated Middle-Eastern and African countries, to the recently increasing atrocious incidents of martyrdom operations or suicide terrorism being perpetrated by the self-styled Jihadists Muslims in some American and European countries, we are being offered evidence of how the concept and practice of Jihad are being distorted and translated to a quite disturbing phenomenon of socio-religious terrorism and barbarism.
Observably, while it is true that these acts are being perpetrated by just a few ignorant, unscrupulous and bigoted elements within the Muslim world of over 1.8 billion demography, it is equally true that, contrary to such people’s claim of rendering services to the Islamic religion, their radical and barbaric teachings and terroristic acts have achieved nothing rather than profaning the sacred teaching and image of Islam. No thanks are therefore due to the non-Muslim Western world, the westernized worlds and the international media which, due to the acts of these few elements, have continued in their increasing stereotyping of Islam as a terrorist, barbaric, violent and war-monger religion.
Does the radical and extremist practice of Jihad by the Islamomaniac Islamists represent the true Islamic conception of the subject? What is the true concept of Jihad in Islam and how should it be ideally applied in the contemporary world? This piece examines all this in the following lines.
Observably, the modern-day violent expressions of Jihad by the extremist Islamists began to acquire its proportional phenomenon right from the 19th and through the 20th to the 21st centuries. This is as a backdrop of the widespread ideological agenda of coercive conversion of the whole humanity and the establishment of the Islamic state and Shari`ah (law) in the world which is deeply rooted in the idiosyncrasy of some elements among the modern mainstream Muslims.
It is safe to note that this phenomenon has come to be due to the cumulative impacts of neither the Holy Qur’an nor the Holy Prophet Muhammad (sa) but the medieval Muslims’ conception and historical expressions of the combative Jihad. For example, Muhammad Abdussalam Faraj, citing authority of the medieval Muslim scholar, Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali, declared that: ‘the saying of the Prophet: ‘I have been sent with the sword’, means that Allah sent him for the call of Tawheed [Oneness] of Allah by the sword after his call for it by evidence. So whoever does not accept the call of tawheed (the Oneness of Allah) by the Qur’an, evidence and eloquence, he will be called by the sword.’  Similarly, from among modern mainstream Muslim scholars, Abul Ala Maududi, in his Al-Jihad fee al-Islam, insisted that ‘Anyone who wants to uproot mischief and disorder from the world and wants to reform mankind should realize that he cannot do so by mere sermonizing and counselling. It is useless. He should rise against the government of false principles; he should seize power, remove the wrongdoers from authority and set up a government based on sound principles and just administration.’  Again, he declared that ‘If their Islamic state has power and resources it will fight and destroy non-Islamic government and establish Islamic states in their place.’ 
More so, another empirical factor situates the phenomenon as a reactive development against the 19th century surge of the Western imperialist and colonialist domination over the entire Muslim world which was consolidated well into the 20th century. Furthermore, the contemporary globalization of the Western civilization and their economic and political hegemony in the world may also be seen as what further provokes the violent reactions framed as jihad by the so-called Muslim radicals. Many among the mainstream Muslims conceive and interpret these developments as an assault, not just against the Muslim world’s socio-political and economic existence, but also the Islamic religion itself. Hence, using Islam as their reason, and by reinterpreting the traditional references on Jihad to provide justification for their conception of a radically violent and coercive Jihadism, many Muslim individuals, groups and governments have been giving practical expressions to this radical Jihadist concept by forcing, persecuting, terrorizing and killing anyone who would not accept their offer of Islam or agree with their Islamic persuasions and coercive establishment of Islamic Shari`ah and states in the world.
Similarly, the recent various Arab uprisings witnessed in Tunisia , Egypt [2011-14], Libya , Yemen , Bahrain , as well as the perennial Somalia’s Al-Shabab rebellion, the protracted Syrian civil war [2012- till date] and the Boko Haram insurgence in Nigeria [since 2009] etc., can only be attributed to the impact of such radical and violent Jihadist conceptions like the Maududian Jihadist principle of ‘rising against the government of false principle and of seizing power.’ This also explains why, as we can see today, besides the numerous perennial internal strife within the respective Muslim countries, there remain only a few, if any, among the typical Muslim countries that have not fought with each other in the recent decades. Iran has fought with Iraq (September, 1980-August, 1988). Libya has warred with Egypt (July 1977). Similarly, the world has witnessed the Iraq-Kuwait war that took place in the early 1990s as well as that of the Saudi-Yemen war which broke out, firstly in 1934, and now, the ongoing Saudi-led coalition that is waging a military operation against Yemen since 2015. The list is ongoing!
Another Jihad-related issue is that of Islamic martyrdom which has been conceptually and practically reduced to the deplorable level of mere suicide terrorism through some extremist re-interpretations of Qur’anic and Prophetic references and their irrational applications.
Observably, as numerous events in the recent past have shown, whether it was the thousands of young Iranian boys in the Bassidj organization who sacrificed themselves during the Iran-Iraq war in the 1980s, the Shia militants in Islamic Jihad that bombed the U.S. embassy and French barracks in Beirut in 1983, the Hezbollah attacks against Israel targets in southern Lebanon in the 1980s, the 9/11 hijackers flying commercial airliners into the World Trade Center, or during the last five years with frequent reports of suicide bombings in Iraq, Afghanistan and Pakistan, Muslims across the world are committing suicide to attack their perceived enemy and become martyrs for their cause.
In the same vein, of particular note is the bloodshed resulting from the protracted Syrian civil war combined with ISIS’s militancy, the Saudi-led coalition in Yemen and as well as Boko Haram’s guerrilla war and suicide bombings in North-East Nigeria. Every case of death resulting from the brutalities perpetrated by each of these bodies is being erroneously regarded as representing true Islamic martyrdom that guarantees paradise to the violent Jihadists. 
As the Promised Messiah and founder of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (as) declared, ‘the philosophy and true nature of Jihad is a matter both complex and subtle. Grave errors have been made both in our age and in the middle age [of Islam] because people failed to understand the subject.’  He further states, ‘Those who possess sight, read the ahādīth [sayings of the Holy Prophet (sa)] and ponder over the Holy Qur’an should understand well that the kind of jihad practised by many of today’s barbaric people is not Islamic Jihad. Rather, these misguided activities that have spread amongst the Muslims are instigated by nafs-e-‘ammarah (self that incites to evil) or by crude desire for paradise.’ 
In light of the above, we are therefore required to embark on an objective assessment of what represents the true and ideal Islamic concept of Jihad.
As for the meaning of the word Jihad, the Promised Messiah (as) states: ‘It should be understood that the word ‘jihad’ is derived from the [Arabic] root ‘juhd’, which means ‘to strive’ and is therefore used figuratively for religious wars.’  Literally, according to Malik Ghulam Fareed’s Dictionary of the Holy Qur’an, Jihad is derived from jahd and juhd which denote to strive or toil; to exert one’s power or ability; to employ oneself vigorously or diligently; to take extraordinary pains in such an affair; to do one’s utmost or use one’s power in prosecuting one’s affairs so that one was tired by it; to exert one utmost power or ability in contending with an object of one’s disapprobation.  Similarly, in his Mufradaat al-Quran, the medieval Muslim Qur’anic lexicographer, al-Imam Raghib al-Isfahani, as cited by Nadhir Ahmad Mubashir as-Sialkoti, explained that the two words: jihad and mujahadah, connote an utmost exertion of power in defence against the enemy. He elaborated further that this is of three kinds, namely struggle against a visible enemy, the devil, and one’s self, all of which are included in the term as used in several places in the Holy Qur’an i.e. ‘And strive in the cause of Allah as it behoves you to strive for it.’ 
A study of both the Qur’anic and prophetic conceptualizations of Jihad reveals an interesting classification of Jihad which are: one, al-Jihad al-Akbar [the greater striving]; two, al-Jihad al-Kabeer [the great striving]; and al-Jihad al-Asghar [the lesser striving]. Here, we shall explore their realities in descending order.
This is the foremost type of Jihad. It consists of all spectrums of Godly and righteous thoughts, speeches and actions inculcated for the purpose of actualizing personal and societal moral and spiritual reformation, wellbeing and progress.
Scriptural and traditional references to the various aspects of this type of true Islamic Jihad can be found in the various Qur’anic and Prophetic injunctions, among which are: ‘Strive with your property and your persons in the cause of Allah,’  The Holy Prophet of Islam, Muhammad (sa) said: ‘Strive against your carnal desires as much as you strive against your visible enemies,’ [Al-Mufradat Fee Ghareeb al-Quran ]. ‘The best Jihad is for a man to strive against his mortal self and whims and caprices,’ [Al-Fath al-Kabir]. ‘Seeking lawful earnings is Jihad,’ [Al-Fath al-Kabir]. ‘It is not the best Jihad for a man to strike with his sword in the cause of Allah, rather, true Jihad is achieved through the caring and loving services a man renders to his parents and children. And whoever lives with himself, restricting it from harming the rest of mankind, then such has actually involved in the practice of true Jihad,’ [Al-Fath al-Kabir]. ‘Abdullah bin Amr narrated that a man came to the Holy Prophet (sa), seeking his permission to engage in military Jihad. The Holy Prophet (sa) asked him: ‘Are your parents alive?’ The man replied, ‘Yes.’ Then, the Holy Prophet (sa) instructed, ‘Go and render a Jihad of humanitarian services to them,’ [Sahih al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim]. ‘Tariq bin Shihab narrated that, ‘While the Prophet of Allah (sa) was setting forth on a journey and putting his foot in the stirrup, a person enquired of him which form of Jihad was the best, he said, ‘The word of truth to a wrong-doing ruler,’ [An-Nisa’i] In another version, the Holy Prophet (sa) said, ‘The word of justice to a tyrant ruler.’ [Ibn Majah]. 
From these narrations, it is obvious that al-Jihad al-Akbar consists of an array of moral imperatives that include: the conscious, conscientious and vigorous lifetime struggle for self-purification against one’s baser and carnal desires and satanic inclinations with the view to weaning oneself from the sway of Satan. Moreover, they include dutifulness to and caring for parents and families; the pursuance of exclusively lawful means of sustenance; financial and personal sacrifices in the cause of Allah; the civilized and peaceful activism or advocacy for justice and truth; the faithful and religious application of the commandments of the Islamic Shariah; and particularly, in the context of our contemporary exigencies, the Jihad of the humanitarian services, such as those being rendered by the various contemporary international humanitarian organizations, for example, Humanity First International, which is the humanitarian organ of the worldwide Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, and so on.
Regarding this type of Jihad, the Holy Qur’an categorically declares, ‘If We had pleased, We could have surely raised a Warner in every city. So obey not the disbelievers and strive against them with it [the Quran] a great striving.’ 
Essentially, these Qur’anic verses offer a clear injunction for Muslims to use the Qur’an to peacefully preach against, confront, resist, subsume and subvert all the atheistic, agnostic and unbelievers’ world orders, principles and ideologies, and to propagate the message of Islam to the world. They clearly stipulate that the Qur’an should be effectively and efficiently employed to accomplish all religious preaching, admonition and sermonizing through peaceful, but impactful, proselytizing approaches and methodologies. Such should include, but not limited to, Jihad of the pen [i.e. Writing and publishing Islamic religious books, leaflets, pamphlets and handbills etc]; and the Jihad of the media, both conventional [print and broadcast], and the New Media [various forms of social media] as tremendously afforded by our postmodern scientific and technological advancements.
In fact, in the context of contemporary anti-Islamic elements that have been widely and powerfully employing intellectual and psychological warfare against Islam through the use of the pen and the mass media, there could be no better, viable and justifiable means to confront and subvert their efforts except by using the same means.
Indeed, the Holy Qur’an stipulates that the civilized guiding principle for all Muslims’ preaching endeavours must always be inspired by, and in accordance with, the letter and spirit of the Qura’nic injunction: ‘Call unto the way of your Lord with wisdom and goodly admonition and argue with them with that which is best.’ 
This type of Jihad consents Muslims to engage in military or combative Jihad for very specific purposes under very certain anti-Islamic circumstances. the details of which shall be assessed as we proceed.
It has been particularly termed ‘the lesser striving’ [al-Jihad al-Asghar] by the Holy Prophet Muhammad (sa) himself. It is narrated in a Hadith: ‘The Prophet of Allah (sa) sent out a troop and at their return, he addressed them saying, ‘Welcome to a people who have accomplished a lesser Jihad and now having a greater Jihad upon them.’ They enquired: ‘Which one is the greater Jihad, O Messenger of Allah? He responded: ‘It is the striving against one’s baser self.’ 
The emphasis on the principle that the combative Jihad is legalized and justified only for specific purposes under certain circumstances is based on the fact that as Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (as) rationalizes, ‘The Holy Qur’an clearly forbids the use of force for the spread of the faith and directs its propagation through its inherent qualities and good example of the Muslims. It maintains that people should not be misled by the notion that in the beginning the Muslims were commanded to take up the sword. That sword was not taken up for the spread of the faith, but in self-defence against the enemies of Islam and for the purpose of establishing peace and security. It was no part of the purpose of taking it up to have recourse to coercion in the matter of faith.’ 
In fact, about 1,400 years before the promulgation of the United Nations’ 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights which recognizes freedom of religion and conscience as a fundamental right of our human species, the Holy Qur’an promulgated its clearest verdict on the issue, declaring that: ‘There should be no compulsion in religion. Surely, right has become distinct from wrong.’ 
The Fourth Caliph of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, Hazrat Mirza Tahir Ahmad (rh), maintained the Surah Al-Kafirun, revealed in the early period of the Prophet’s (sa) ministry, is a direct statement of policy on the subject of freedom of conscience. The Prophet (sa) was asked to tell unbelievers there was absolutely no meeting-point between their way of life and his. As they were in complete disagreement, not only with regard to the basic concepts of religion but also with regard to its details and other aspects, there could not possibly be any compromise between them. Hence, ‘For you, your religion, for me, my religion,’  
Furthermore, the Holy Qur’an commands: ‘And say, ‘It is the truth from your Lord; wherefore let him who will, believe, and let him who will, disbelieve.’  These most civilized and peaceful Qura’nic teachings do not only clearly grant humankind the right to freedom of religion and conscience, but also condemn and prohibit every Muslim individual, group and government from engaging in coercive conversion of others to Islam.
Moving forward, therefore, it should be stated that the first commandment allowing Muslims to engagement in combative Jihad in order to defend Islam, themselves, and in essence the concept of freedom of religion against the offensive religious wars that were being waged by their persecutors and opponents is given in chapter 22 of the Holy Qur’an, where it is stated: ‘Permission to fight is given to those against whom war is made because they have been wronged – and Allah indeed has power to help them – Those who have been driven out from their homes unjustly only because they said, ‘Our Lord is Allah’ – And if Allah did not repel some men by means of others, there would surely have been pulled down cloisters and churches and synagogues and mosques, wherein the name of Allah is oft commemorated.’ 
Commenting on the above verse, Bernard K. Freamon opines that: ‘This verse is the genesis of the concept of the military jihad. It clearly offers normative justification to Muslims for waging war in the exercise of the collective right to self-defence and it brings the Islamic conception of defensive war into close alignment with traditional Western ‘Just War’ doctrine.’ 
Furthermore, in light of the rationales clearly articulated by this verse, Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (as) succinctly concludes that wars in Islam fall under three categories: ‘[i] Defensive war – war by way of self-protection; [ii] Punitive war – blood for blood; [iii] War to establish freedom – to break the hold of those who kill converts to Islam.’ 
Similarly, leveraging on the context of this same Qura’nic, Professor Muhammad Hamidullah, in his legal magnum corpus titled Muslim Conduct of State, also traced both the backgrounds and the rationales behind each of the wars the Holy Prophetsa engaged in. He states: ‘This refers to the Prophet and other Muslims who had taken refuge in Madinah and were still being harassed by the Meccans in many ways. They addressed, for instance, an ultimatum to a Madinite magnate ‘Abdullah ibn Ubaiy, either to fight and kill or expel the Prophet, or they would attack Madinah. Many Traditions bear witness to the fact that in the early days after the migration of the Prophet, the Muslim community of Madinah lived such a precarious life that they used to sleep in full war-kit. Another instance is provided by the expedition against Dumatul-Jandal in the year 5H., where the local chieftain, Ukaidir, was molesting the caravans going from the north to Madinah. The attack on Khaibar is an instance of nipping war in the bud. The battles of Uhud and Khandaq were defensive. Hunain was preventive even as that of Banul-Mustaliq. The attack on Ta’if was the continuation of the battle of Hunain. Badr was for reprisal.’ 
This shows that the only types of war which Muslims are permitted to engage in are those that are defensive, preventive, reprisal and punitive; never has any offensive war meant for spreading Islam or establishing an Islamic state ever been permitted and justified by Islam.
From the assessment so far made, it has become crystal clear that the type of Jihad that is combative or military is fundamentally subject to and restricted by circumstantial conditions which make it unavoidable; otherwise, it is strictly proscribed. The basic condition is that the offensive must have been launched first by the enemy, and must have been waged as a religious war with the aim of destroying Islam and subverting the Muslims from exercising their human right to freedom of religion.
It is in this context that David Bryan Cook opines that Jihad, despite the way it is commonly portrayed in the media (and in the colloquial usage), is not an unrestricted form of warfare. The basic goal of jihad is to raise the Word of God to the highest, and in order to accomplish this, jihad must be qualitatively different from other forms of warfare. Goals such as fame and wealth are enough to disqualify a Muslim from waging true Jihad, and the fighter is encouraged to examine his own intentions in order to make certain that when he fights he is fighting with the purest intentions. Islamic literature is full of descriptions of Jihad and includes a number of boundaries that must be observed in order for the warfare to be Jihad and for one to be granted the title of being a martyr. These boundaries include the process of declaring war, as well as making certain that the enemy knows what the war is about and under what terms it can be concluded. Other boundaries include fighting only combatants, making certain that specific implements of mass slaughter are avoided in battle and ensuring that the captives taken during the campaign are treated humanely. 
Thus, when one evaluates the context of the forgoing study in the light of the contemporary situations where all the intra/inter-state wars and intra-religious conflicts which dominate the contemporary Muslim countries and communities cannot be ascribed to any denial of religious freedom or religious persecutions by the anti-Islamic forces; instead, they are based on such causes like political power struggles etc. One feels confident to maintain that those rebellions, civil uprisings and wars and insurgencies are far removed from what could be described as true Islamic Jihad in practice.
Furthermore, one can also confidently maintain that all such terrorist activities and atrocities which are being launched against innocent and non-combatant civilians do not represent Islamic Jihad. They are rather misrepresentations of what Islam represents: peace. This is because, as Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (as) declares, ‘the conditions for the Jihad with the sword do not currently exist, the Jihad with the sword is not permissible these days.’  Also, as he further states, it is because, ‘Jihad, with the sword, has ended from this time forward, but the jihad of purifying your souls must continue. I do not say this of my own accord. This is indeed the will of God. Recall the Hadith from Sahih al-Bukhari which honours the Promised Messiah by saying yada-‘ul-harb. That is to say, when the Messiah comes he will put an end to religious wars. Accordingly, I command those who have joined my ranks to refrain from all such thoughts, to purify their hearts, to foster sympathy, and to be compassionate towards the suffering. They should spread peace on earth because that will cause their faith to spread in return.’  Most importantly, it is because, as Hazrat Mirza Tahir Ahmad (rh) beautifully explains, ‘Swords can win territories but not hearts. Force can bend heads but not minds.’ 
Conclusively, Islam is a world order constructed upon the intrinsic principles of peace, love, compassion and universal moral values. It is constructive; not destructive. This is exemplified by the worldwide Ahmadiyya Muslim Community as is evident from its widely celebrated motto, ‘Love for All; Hatred for None.’
As a religion of peace, it considers it an anathema that peace is preached and established in the world through the instrumentality of war, force and coercion. It believes that the value, beauty, simplicity and humaneness of its theological, jurisprudential and ideological teachings and all the logic, reason and rationality that underpinned them, on the one hand, and the good moral demonstrations by the Muslims, on the other hand, should be captivating enough to convince and convert the hardest heart of man to become subservient to the world order of Allah and a worshiper of his Ultimate God. Only peaceful means can and should be used to reform our corrupted human life and world.
About the author: Al-Hafiz Yunus Omotayo is an Imam of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, Nigeria, and Chairman of the Muslim Writers Guild of Nigeria.
 The Holy Qur’an 2:256
 Muhmmad Abdussalam Faraj, Jihaad – The Absent Obligation, Maktabah Al-Ansar, UK, , p. 15
 Cited in, Ahmad, Mirza Tahir, Murder in the Name of Allah, Lutterworth Press, UK,  p. 41
 Ibid, p.15
 Omotayo, Al-Hafiz Yunus, Martyrdom in Islam – A Brief Conceptual Clarification, Muslim Writers Guild of Nigeria, http://nigeriamuslimwriters.org/martyrdom-in-islam-a-brief-conceptual-clarification/ date accessed: 16/7/2020
 Ahmad, Mirza Ghulam, The British Government and Jihad, Islam International Publications Ltd, UK,, p. 3
 Ibid, p. 11
 Malik Ghulam Fareed, Dictionary of the Holy Quran, Islam International Publication, UK, , p. 150
 The Holy Qur’an 22:79
 Sialkoti, Al-Haj Nazir Ahmad Mubashir, al-Qaul as-Sareeh fee Zuhoor al-Masih al-Mau’ood, Islam International Publications Ltd, UK, [Second Edition, 2014], p. 70
 The Holy Qur’an 9:41
 Sialkoti, Al-Haj Nazir Ahmad Mubashir, al-Qaul as-Sareeh fee Zuhoor al-Masih al-Mau’ood, Islam International Publications Ltd, UK, [Second Edition, 2014], p. 70
 The Holy Qur’an 25:52-53
 The Holy Qur’an 16:126
 Al-Zuhd al-Kabir lil-Baihiqi Hadith #384
 Ahmad, Mirza Ghulam, Sitarah Qaisariyah, Ruhani Khazain, vol 15, p. 120-121
 The Holy Qur’an 2:257
 The Holy Qur’an 109:7
 Ahmad, Mirza Tahir, Murder in the Name of Allah, , Lutterworth Press, UK, 49
 The Holy Qur’an 18:30
 The Hoy Qur’an 22:45
 Freamon, Bernard K., Martyrdom, Suicide, and the Islamic Law of War, p.302
 Ahmad, Mirza Ghulam, Jesus in India, Islam International Publications Ltd, Nigeria, 2006, p.11
 Muhammad Hamidullah, Muslim Conduct of State, 1977, Muhammad Ashraf, Pakistan, p.168
 Cook, David Bryan, Radical Islam and Martyrdom Operations: What should the United States Do? The James A. Baker 111 Institute for Public Policy of Rice University,  p. 2-3
 Ahmad, Mirza Ghulam, Haqiqatul Mahdi, p. 19; vide Mirza Tahir Ahmad’s True Islamic Concept of Jihad,  Islam International Publications Ltd, UK, P. 12
 Ahmad, Mirza Ghulam, The British Government and Jihad,. Islam International Publications Ltd, UK,, p. 6
 Ahmad, Mirza Tahir, Islam’s Response to Contemporary Issues, Islam International Publications Ltd, UK,  p. 31